Papers Posted on - Mar / 2014


Author Name Stephen W. Bigger and Marlene J. Cran
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.01
Paper Title Formulation and Characterization of Materials Containing Natural Antimicrobial Agents for Food Packaging Applications
Abstract
An overview of some of the traditional as well as novel polymeric systems that are used for food packaging applications is presented where the system contains natural anti microbial agents. The background to the need for developing new active packaging systems that meet consumer preference in particular relation to the nature of the additives they release into the foodstuff as well as to their effect on the environment after disposal is discussed. Some novel systems that attempt to address these needs and operate within the constraints that are imposed by regulatory authorities, consumer expectations and environmental considerations are presented along with some of the main techniques that are commonly used to characterize such systems.
Keywords
Active packaging, Antimicrobial agents, Food packaging materials, Starch-based materials Additive migration
Author Name I. V. Singh, B. K. Mishra, Sachin Kumar, A. S. Shedbale
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.02
Paper Title Nonlinear Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis of a Center Crack Plate by XFEM
Abstract
In the present article, the fatigue life of a center crack plate has been evaluated using XFEM in the presence of defects (holes, inclusions and minor cracks). The effect of plasticity is also evaluated on the fatigue life of the components. A generalized Ramberg-Osgood material model has been used to model the stress-strain behavior of the material. Von-Mises yield criterion has been used with isotropic strain hardening. A domain based approach is used to calculate the values of J-integral for two fracture modes (mode-I and mode-II). The values of stress intensity factor are evaluated from the J-integral values. Paris law is used to calculate the fatigue life under cyclic loading. Finally, the results obtained by linear and elasto-plastic analysis are compared with each other.
Keywords
XFEM, LEFM, EPFM, J-integral, SIF, Von-Mises yield criterion, Holes, inclusions and minor cracks
Author Name Bhargavi Rebba,Ramanaiah
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.06
Paper Title Studies on Mechanical Properties of 2024 Al – B4c Composites
Abstract
The present study was aimed at evaluating the mechanical properties of Aluminium 2024 alloy reinforced with B4C. An effort is made to enhance the mechanical properties like tensile strength and hardness of AMCs by reinforcing 2024 Al matrix with B4C particles. By stir casting method, aluminium matrix was reinforced with boron carbide particulates of 325 mesh size. Composite combinations of different weight % - 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% & 5% were fabricated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the fabricated AMCs were analyzed. Based on the results obtained from tensile strength test and hardness test of the metal matrix composites of different weight %, comparison study was made. The optical microstructure images reveal the homogeneous dispersion of B4C particles in the matrix. The reinforcement dispersion has also been identified with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The tensile strength and hardness were found to increase with the increase in wt. % of the reinforcement
Keywords
2024 Al, B4C Composites, AMC.
Author Name Navin Kumar and Kishore Pochiraju
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.03
Paper Title Transitions in dynamic stress states due to crack initiation in a single crystal
Abstract
The effect of crack initiation on the dynamic stress states in a single crystal material is simulated using molecular dynamics methods. In Process, we examined if the dynamic virial stress measure capture structure vibration characteristic. The material is modeled using atomic state representative volume elements with both finite and infinite boundaries. The elastic response of the material is the result of atomic interaction modeled using embedded atom method (EAM) force potentials and idealized single crystal lattice geometries. Convergent initial equilibrium states are obtained by heating the material ensemble with slow heating rates. From the numerical simulations temperature dependent properties of the gold are determined. Frequency spectrum of virial stress and its kinetic and potential components are obtained. Crack initiation is modeled by selectively removing force interactions between atoms on the crack plane. The transition in the dynamics stress states are observed in the frequency domain. Frequency and amplitude shifts as evident in the frequency spectrum plots, show the loss in the stiffness (shift in the fundamental frequency) of the material.
Keywords
Dynamics Stress, Molecualr Dynamics Crack, Single Cristal
Author Name Deepa R, Usha S, P V Shashi Kumar
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.04
Paper Title Automated Vision Inspection System for a Plastic Injection Mould Component
Abstract
This paper presents an automated vision based defect inspection and sorting system for a plastic injection mould component called a Retractor Retaining Bush, which is an automotive safety critical component. The system identifies defects which usually occur in a plastic injection mould component. Various types of sensors and actuators were interfaced with the vision hardware and the part handling mechanism to complete the total automated vision based inspection system.
Keywords
Vision Inspection, Plastic inspection, Defect identification
Author Name Azhar Equbal, Anoop Kumar Sood
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.05
Paper Title Electroless plating of copper on different shaped ABS parts: A comparison
Abstract
Metallization of ABS part has been studied on four different geometries namely cuboidal, cylindrical, pyramid and cone. These parts are fabricated on a FDM (fused deposition modelling) machine through layer by layer deposition process using ABS (acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene) as parent material. Copper is deposited by electroless deposition method on all these fabricated parts using aluminium charcoal paste. The deposition process is also validated using four different acidic baths. The acidic baths used are 5% CuSO4 with 15% of individual Hydrofluoric acid (HF), Sulphuric acid (H2SO4), Phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and Acetic acid (CH3COOH). Copper deposition under different acidic baths for different deposition time is presented with their electrical performance measurement. The results show that cuboidal sample demonstrated better electrical performance in all acidic baths in comparison to other geometries involved. The results also propose that hydrofluoric acid gives best performance for all the geometries when compared with other acidic bath adopted. Introduction Plastic has got very widespread application in all the fields including oil & gas, automotive industry, electronic industry, chemical processing, textile and aerospace industry etc. It has got many excellent properties such as durability, lower cost, corrosion resistance, less weight and design freedom (i.e., the ability to mould into any shape easily) in comparison to metals, making its wide spread applicability in product manufacturing. However, there are many areas in which due to decorative or technological considerations, metallic properties are required or demanded. Some of these properties like reflectivity, abrasion resistance, electrical conductivity which is present in metal parts can be induced on parts made by plastic through the process known as plating of plastics (POP) [1]. POP has been widely used in numerous industries including electronics, automotive, aerospace, medical, industrial, and defence. Plated plastic is used to address a variety of needs, from decorative finishes such as chrome-plated automotive trim used in interior and exterior applications, automobile parts (as dashes, dash boards, arm rests, vents etc.), to functional requirements such as controlling electro-magnetic emiss
Keywords
Rapid prototyping, Fused deposition modelling, Plastic, Conductivity, Surface preparation/conditioning, Copper deposition.
Author Name S.V.Ranganayakulu, A.kucheludu, B. Veera Bhadraiah, B. Ramesh Kumar
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.07
Paper Title Defect Location and Sizing by Ultrasonic Phased Array on Aero Grade Material Aluminum He-15
Abstract
This paper gives the orientation and inspection of aero grade material by using Ultrasonic Phased Array over conventional methods. The dimension of material sample HE15 is 150*120*10. Two defragmented aluminum alloys are joined by welding process known as Tungsten Inert Gas Welding. Inspection of material is carried out by various Non Destructive Testing methods namely ultrasonic method, radiography method, liquid penetrant and Phased array technique. Sensitivity of material is noticed by scanning of ultrasonic phased array and pulse echo technique method alternatively defects are detected by other NDT methods namely X-ray, Ultrasonic phased array technique and LPT. Few surface flaws are noticed at a depth of 2mm by LPT method. Porosity and inclusion defects are better trace-out through phased array and X-ray radiography respectively. Ultrasonic Phased Array sectorial scan technique produces immediate images, allowing straight forward visualization of the internal structure and simplifying data interpretation of weld joint. The defect is identified and located by Ultrasonic Phased array Dynamic depth focusing Technique.
Keywords
Aluminum HE-15, Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG), Ultrasonic Phased Array, Sectorial Scan
Author Name K. Srinivasa Vadayar, S. Devaki Rani
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.08
Paper Title Characterization of Sn-Bi and Sn-Bi-Zn alloys
Abstract
Lead-free solders are offering better alternative properties compared to the conventional Sn-Pb solders. The requirements of soldered joints and solder alloys are good mechanical properties, wettability etc. The present work is about the investigation of tensile and shears properties of two alloys Sn-58Bi and Sn-57Bi-1.3Zn in comparison with conventional Sn-38Pb alloy. Contact angle, spread in area and capillary rise is also investigated in the present work. It is observed that the lead free solders have better mechanical properties in comparison with conventional Sn-38Pb alloy. The alloys exhibited good wettability behavior thereby exhibiting good solderability properties. SEM studies of tensile and shear fracture show ductile mode of fracture for Sn-Pb and Sn-Bi-Zn alloys whereas cleavage facets were observed incase of Sn-Bi alloy. Sn-Bi and Sn-Bi-Zn alloys are attractive alternatives to Sn-Pb solders in the lower processing temperatures like in printed circuit boards and other applications.
Keywords
Solders, Tension, Shear, Contact angle
Author Name A.Shirisha, V.Vinod Kumar, S.Santhosh kumar, K.Varun, A.Bhavana
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.09
Paper Title Advanced Composite Micro-Hydro Turbine Wheel Design and Study Its Performance for Power Generation
Abstract
Recently, Advance composite materials have taken the significant share with other engineering materials due to its mechanical properties and high strength to weight ratio. Advance composite like Carbon fibre, woven roving, chopped strand mat, are not confined at the aerospace industry but gradually these are taking over the position of other industries as well. Micro-hydro power turbines are an attractive option for providing electricity in off grid areas of the country and a good alternative energy source for production of energy. The simple pelton and cross-flow turbines are predominantly used for these projects as they are cheaper to construct for this form of renewable energy. Pelton wheel is a most efficient impulse turbine for medium and high head hydro sites. It is general practice to use brass/aluminium or some time stainless steel for the construction of Pelton wheel buckets. Making some changes and improvements to the existing design we can use these micro turbines at the water pumps where the pressure in the water is not used. This can ensure that more households in the catchment area get more than just lighting, but are able to use other devices such as refrigerators, stoves etc., in their houses. Manufacturing buckets with Advance composite materials is not yet common though it is light, durable and corrosion resistant. In this paper endeavour has taken to design and fabricate a micro-hydro turbine wheel where runner and seven buckets have been designed and developed after careful analyzing the various parameters of Composite design criterion. Woven rowing, Chopped Glass fibres have been used as reinforcing fibres with polyester matrix for bucket design and manufacturing.
Keywords
Composite materials, Woven roving, Chopped strand mat, Hand lay up
Author Name Manoj Kumar Rath
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.10
Paper Title Vibration and Buckling of Composite Plates in Hygrothermal Environment
Abstract
The present study deals with numerical investigation on vibration and buckling behavior of laminated composite plates subjected to varying temperature and moisture concentration. Quantitative results are presented to show the effects of geometry, material and lamination parameters of woven fiber laminate on vibration and buckling of composite plates for different temperature and moisture concentrations.
Keywords
Hygrothermal environment, woven fiber, buckling loads in KN. free vibration, frequency, composites,
Author Name Precision Drilling of Glass Fiber Reinforced Composite (GFRP) with Modified HSS Drill Geometry
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.11
Paper Title Precision Drilling of Glass Fiber Reinforced Composite (GFRP) with Modified HSS Drill Geometry
Abstract
Even though near net shape manufacturing of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) is possible, drilling is an unavoidable operation, particularly for assembly of structures/panels having holes of specified dimensional tolerance, surface texture and integrity. In the present work drilling tests were carried out on GFRP composites with conventional HSS (18-4-1) drill bit and then by modifying the drill geometry (web or chisel edge ) i.e. web thinning in order to show the effect of drill geometry in general and web (chisel edge) in particular on the performance of the drilling of GFRP composite. It is observed that the fiber orientations and drill geometry plays a vital role on the cut quality and delamination.
Keywords
Delamination, GFRP, Tool wear, HSS.
Author Name Akash S.Bage, N.Ramsubramanian
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.12
Paper Title Thermal Analysis of Vacuum Chamber of Q-Machine
Abstract
Plasma is a partially ionized gas in which a certain portion of electrons are free rather than being bound to an atom or molecule. The steady state plasma is produced by a machine named Q- Machine as the plasma is formed by Quiescent. In this device the Plasma source is a hot plate “heated to 2700K by electron bombardment. The vacuum chamber of Q-machine is a part of an experimental proposal for cesium plasma confined in a multi-cusp magnetic field at IPR. In this paper study the temperature distribution of a vacuum chamber by using ANSYS 13 software is to carried out thermal analysis..
Keywords
Plasma, Multi-cusp, Vacuum Chamber, Thermal Analysis
Author Name Raman Goud.R, Eswar Prasad.K, Swadesh Kumar Singh
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2014.03.13
Paper Title Redrawing of EDD steel at elevated temperature
Abstract
In the present paper the drawability of extra deep drawing steel was estimated in two stage forward redrawing process. The EDD steel sheets of one millimeter thickness were cut into circular blanks of diameter 80mm, 82mm and 84mm.Deep drawing and redrawing experiments were carried out successfully on hydraulic press by using specially designed super alloy dies at room temperature and at elevated temperatures. The effects of process parameters on the final product quality were discussed. The experimental results were analyzed and the process defects of local thinning were predicted and thickness variations were discussed.
Keywords
Redrawing LDR EDD steel