Papers Posted on - Mar / 2013


Author Name Fan-Gang Tseng
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.001
Paper Title Nano/Micro Fluidic Systems for Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) Rapid Detection and Diagnosis
Abstract
Despite the recent advancement of biotechnology and pharmaceutical research, cancers remain the leading cause of human mortality. It is vital to diagnose cancers at an early stage when treatment can dramatically improve prognosis. So far, low-cost and easy to operate devices, which allow efficient isolation and sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) for routine blood screening, remain lacking. This talk will introduce a novel micro fluidic platform which can isolate CTCs from the real blood sample in 30 minutes: this system includes a high throughput blood cell separation chip which can separate white blood cells with CTCs from red blood cells and platelets by inertial and suction actions; a nano structured surface which can allow higher retention rate of CTCs on the surface for sample enrichment by 100 folds from 1/107 upto 1/105 CTCs/WBCs.and the enriched sample will go through a final cells self-assembly process into a densed monolayer on a cell assembly chip for in parallel inspection at high speed. As a result, the CTCs can be identified in 30 minutes by the integration of these three chips altogether. Isolated CTCs will still be in vital and can be further characterized and cultivated for the identification of cancer stem cells for prognosis
Keywords
Monolayer Hydrodynamic Shear-gradient.
Author Name Ahmet Onur
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.008
Paper Title Application of Age Hardening Process to AA2011 Powders Produced by Oil Atomization Method
Abstract
AA2011 aluminium-alloy powders were produced in an atomization unit, which was previously designed and manufactured, by using the oil as atomization fluid. Negative influence of oxide amount on the produced parts was reduced compared to water atomization method. Test specimens were produced by pressing the powders into the mold. In addition, age hardening process was applied to these specimens and comparisons were made with the parts produced by rolling process. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the hardness values depending on the time
Keywords
Powder metallurgy, oil atomization, age hardening
Author Name Nergizhan Kavak
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.009
Paper Title Investigation of Effect to Mechanical Strength of Additive Powder Type into Adhesive
Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate the capability of adhesive with adding aluminium powder and 63/37 Sn-Pb soft solder powder and copper powder to the epoxy to increase the mechanical strength of joints. The adhesive strength of the joints was determined by utilizing the single-lap shear test. Experimental results show that joints prepared by adhesive which was modified, adding 5 wt% 63/37 Sn-Pb powder have more mechanical strength than joints compared to ones which were prepared by adding aluminium powder and copper powder with ratio as 5 wt%.
Keywords
Epoxy; Metal powders; Mechanical strength.
Author Name C. Vidal, V. Infante, P. Peças, P. Vilaça
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.005
Paper Title Application of Taguchi Method in the Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Parameters of an Aeronautic Aluminium Alloy
Abstract
The Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process is still an innovative solid state mechanical processing technology enabling high quality joints in materials previously considered with low weldability such as most of the aeronautic aluminium alloys. The Taguchi method was used to find the optimal FSW parameters for improvement mechanical behaviour of AA2024-T351. The Taguchi design is an efficient and effective experimental method in which a response variable can be optimized. The parameters considered were vertical downward forging force, travel speed and pin length. An orthogonal array of L9 (34) was used; ANOVA analyses were carried out to identify the significant factors affecting tensile strength (GETS), bending toughness (GEB) and hardness field. An algebraic model for predicting the best mechanical performance was developed and the optimal FSW combination was determined using this model. The results obtained were validated by conducting confirmation experiments
Keywords
Friction Stir Welding, Taguchi method, ANOVA
Author Name Suha K. Shihab, Zahid A . Khan , Aasmohammad, Arshad Noor Siddiquee
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.006
Paper Title Application of Response Surface Methodology for Determining Cutting Forces in Hard Turning Using Castrol Coolant
Abstract
The present paper investigates the effect of different cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut) on cutting force components using Castrol cooling condition in hard turning of alloy steel AISI 52100 . Mathematical models for cutting force components were developed using the response surface methodology (RSM). Experiment designs completed with a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) were performed. These models would be helpful in selecting optimum values of cutting parameters when turning hardened steels using coated carbide cutting tools. Results show that the cutting force components are influenced principally by the depth of cut, while feed rate and cutting speed have small effect on the cutting force components
Keywords
Cutting forces, Castrol cooling, Hard alloy steel
Author Name SeyedEbrahimVahdat,AlirezaPournaghi
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.007
Paper Title Optimization of Bone Implant Selection with Price Analysis
Abstract
This paper introduces a mathematical method based on fuzzy logic which is used in designing of bone implant. Five sets of criteria are defined as follow: total corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, adherence, technical specs and price. Each of these criterions is divided into its subsets. Then membership functions of sets are defined. In continuation the satisfactory degree is calculated. Finally, biomaterial favorability is determined and the effect of price on sensitivity analysis is analyzed. Twelve common metallic biomaterials are used in the database. These methods show the satisfactory value for bone implant as a continuous value ranging from zero to one. Therefore, biomaterial designer can compare a new material to the database systematically and he/she can determine restricted parameters to increase the performance of bone implant. The results show; the model is sensitive. In addition; price is an effective parameter in the selection of implants and it leads to customer satisfaction.
Keywords
Biomaterial Characterization; Fuzzy Logic
Author Name D. Sujan, K. P. Ting
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.002
Paper Title Closed Form Bi-Layered Interfacial Thermal Stress Model in Electronic Packaging
Abstract
Closed form solution of thermal mismatch stresses in perfectly bonded electronic packaging subjected to uniform temperature change was presented in this paper. The bi-material shearing stress model was developed by solving a simple second order differential equation instead of a relatively complicated integro-differential equation of earlier solution. The interfacial stresses were further investigated with the consideration of continuous and partial bonding layer to evaluate their relative influence in electronic packaging. The FEM simulation of an electronic packaging example was compared to the analytical solutions. The comparison between the present model and the finite element solution showed reasonably good agreement. It was concluded that the bi-layered electronic packaging in partial bond can be ignored and assumed as continuous bond if the center distance between the two bonded locations in partial bonded assembly is very small.
Keywords
Bi-layered assembly, Interfacial shearing stress, Thermal mismatch stress, Continuous Bond layer, Partial Bond Layer
Author Name K. Prashantha, M.-F.Lacrampe, P.Krawczak
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.003
Paper Title Halloysite Nanotubes-Polymer Nano composites:A New Class of Multifaceted Materials
Abstract
This Research on polymeric materials was widely focused on the development of polymer nano composites with various nano fillers during the last decades. In this context, the present lecture gives an overview on recent developments on halloy site nano tubes reinforced nano composites, including the processing, characterization and potential applications in industry. The naturally derived nano tubular halloysites represent a distinctive class of nanofiller for industrially significant polymers. Usage of such natural nanotubes not only enhances the material properties but also improves the sustainability and environmental impact of the manufactured products. Additionally, HNTs are biocompatible, and find various applications in biomedical field. In the present work, environmentally friendly HNTs were introduced into various thermoplastics such as polypropylene, polyamide-66, bio based polyamide 11 and thermoplastic starch matrices to generate novel nano composite materials through an advantageous melt-processing method. The effects of HNTs content on the structural, optical, thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic and dielectic properties were investigated. The incorporation of HNTs generates notable performance enhancements through reinforcement effects, highly efficient nucleation activity. In particular, compared to other nano fillers such as nano clays and carbon nanotubes, excellent mechanical properties have been observed (and especially a unique combination of strength, rigidity and ductility). A focus will also be made on the tuning of structural and mechanical properties of the thermoplastic starch through residence time, addition of different combinations of plasticizers and HNTs content. Finally, strategy of preparing conducting composite via the addition of polyaniline functionalized halloy site nano tubes into polymer matrix are presented in order to enhance the application of halloy site nano tubes. Such HNTs filled nano composites can provide an effective balance between performance, cost effectiveness and easy processing, and should be of great interest in the area of multifunctional polymer nano composite materials.
Keywords
Halloysite nanotubes; Thermoplastics; Nanocomposites; Melt processing; Mechanical properties; Morphology.
Author Name N. B. Singh, David House and Bradley Arnold
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.004
Paper Title Hyperstructure and Meta Morphology Formation in Heavy Metal Chalcogenides
Abstract
Researchers have designed and developed many artificial patterns and shapes of materials in different sizes for RF and EO applications and designated as metamaterials. We have grown cubic, hexagonal, octagonal and pyramidal structures of commercially important infrared materials such as PbSe and its alloys which change to nanocubes at high temperature. We report the growth, nanomorphology and electrical characteristics of hyperstructured PbSe on Si substrates. Hyperbranched PbSe networks are synthesized by low temperature physical vaour transport method. The formation of branches and facets were produced in diffusion growth region. This was supported by facets formations. When PbSe and PbS-CdS were grown at 400 C without catalyst shapes stabilized into cubic morphology and nanocubes were observed significantly. X-ray showed strong growth in (001) and (111) orientations for facets. A similar study was performed for doped lead sulfide. Pure PbS showed oriented hexagonal rods which had strong directionality. PbS doped with CdS produced small rods (nanowires) randomly oriented. All these structures ultimately changed into cubes similar to that of PbS system The resistivity was very much dependent on the processing conditions. Annealing in atmosphere increased the values orders of magnitude higher. We observed significant changes in morphology after oxidation process. The level of the oxidation processes and filling of selenium vacancies with oxygen may be the reason for resistivity to increase from the range of 60KΩ to 5-10 MΩ. Also the stability of oxidized lead selenide can be explained on the basis of selenium vacancies filled by oxygen.
Keywords
Lead Selenide, Detector, Morphology, Growth, Characterization, Resistivity, Bandgap, Silicon, Sapphire
Author Name B. Rajini Kanth and P.K. Mukhopadhyay
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.010
Paper Title Determination of Magnetic Field Induced Strain in CoNiAl based Ferromagnetic Shapememory Alloy using Strain Gauge
Abstract
The magnetic field induced strain (MFIS) is key parameter for determining the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) for the application of sensors and actuators. NiMnGa based FSMAs, having higher magnetic field induced strain in both polycrystalline and single crystalline formats found to be prototypes for this applications. But, because of their brittleness and higher cost of its constituent metals using them practically is very difficult and cost effective. As an alternate to these alloys, CoNiAl alloy has emerged due to its higher ductility and high Tc, good magnetic properties, large range of transformation and Curie temperatures. In view of these factors, CoNiAl alloy samples were prepared using the arc melting method and annealed in a furnace and characterized using X-ray diffraction(XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope(SEM) and EDAX. The transformation temperatures were obtained from the resistivity measurements (from 80 K to 400 K). The MFIS at room temperature for CoNiAl alloys was determined using a strain gauge attached to the sample which is kept in a d.c. electromagnet of maximum field 2T and data was obtained from a data logger. The results of such measurements are presented in this paper.
Keywords
Ferro-magnetic shapememory Alloys, Magnetic Field Induced Strain, Strain Gauge, Resistivity
Author Name AmitansuPattanaik, Abhishek Kumar Sharma, SagarRana, PankajChopra, P D Sahare
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.011
Paper Title Energy Transfer Studies in Binary Dye Solution Mixture of Coumarin 440 + Coumarin 540 and its LifetimeCalculations
Abstract
The sensitized fluorescence emission from the bimixture [Coumarin 440 (donor) + Coumarin 540 (acceptor)] has been measured as a function of dye concentration using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. The concentration of Coumarin 440 (donor) is kept constant at 5×10-5M while the concentration of Coumarin 540 (acceptor) is varied. The spectroscopic parameters for this bimixture have been calculated from the concentration dependence of peak fluorescence intensity curves. Also the data obtained from the Horiba JobinYvon Time Resolved Fluorescence Spectrophotometer was analyzed for the determination of lifetimes at various emission peaks. A comparative study between theoretically calculated lifetimes and experimentally obtained lifetimes shows a good agreement. The results indicate that the energy transfer process between unlike molecules can be studied by lifetime measurements (which could also be determined from the fluorescence emission spectral studies).
Keywords
Bimixture, Coumarin 440, Fluorescence Spectrophotometer
Author Name Govindaraju M, K. Balasubramanian
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.012
Paper Title Dissimilar Joining of Heat Treatable Copper alloy with Stainless Steel
Abstract
Precipitation hardening stainless steel and copper chromium zirconium alloy are age hardening materials used in ITER, aerospace and plasma physics. Dissimilar vacuum brazing was carried after in solutionised condition to retain the maximum possible mechanical properties of both the alloys. A novel differential temperature vacuum brazing method coupled with heat treatment was evolved for the same and proved by experiments. The brazing experiment was carried out with a special heater + furnace assembly where the precipitation hardening stainless steel part was at 1040°C and copper chromium zirconium alloy part was at 980°C which where matching with solutionising temperature of both the alloys. Immediately after brazing (brazing cycle = solutionising cycle) the samples were quenched from brazing temperature by inert gas. Filler material used in the study was gold-18% nickel alloy. Aging treatment was carried out at 496°C for 4 hours after brazing. Parameters for maximum joint strength and maximum mechanical properties of precipitation hardening stainless steel and copper chromium zirconium alloy were arrived and discussed in detail. Resultant joint strength, microstructure and hardness results were included
Keywords
Vacuum brazing, Dissimilar joining, Heat treatment, Copper chromium Zirconium alloy.
Author Name Reflection and Transmission of So Lamb Mode in A Metal-Composite Adhesive Joint
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.013
Paper Title Lokanna Hoskoti, C. Ramadas
Abstract
In the present paper reflection and transmission of the fundamental symmetric Lamb mode (So), and the mode converted Lamb mode (Ao) at 200 kHz in a metal (aluminium)-composite (glass fiber/epoxy) adhesive joint is presented. When So mode is employed for detection of disbond in a metal-composite adhesive joint, the mode can be excited either on the composite end or metal end. When So Lamb mode excited on either end is incident on an adhesive joint, it undergoes reflection and transmission and propagates as SoSo mode in both the metal and composite parts. Moreover, So mode undergoes mode conversion to Ao and this mode propagates as SoAo mode along with the SoSo mode. Amplitudes of the SoSo and the SoAo modes propagating in the metal and the composite parts depend on the orientation of adhesive and also the end from which the incident mode is excited. From numerical simulations it is found that the amplitude of reflected SoSo, SoAo and transmitted SoAo modes attain maximum values when the orientation of adhesive is 600 and the transmitted SoSo mode attains minimum value at the same angle. Moreover, the trend in variation in the amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted SoSo and SoAo modes is nearly same
Keywords
Lamb waves, Metal-composite joint FE modeling, Transmission, Reflection.
Author Name R.Ramanarayanan, C. HariVenkateswara Rao, C. Venkateshwara Reddy
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.014
Paper Title Heat Resistant Composite Materials for Aerospace Applications
Abstract
Heat resistant composites are widely used for high temperature thermal protection systems and as flame deflectors for aerospace applications. Advanced composites made of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites because of their strength, stiffness, low weight and their excellent thermal properties made them to replace metallic components. In this study bi-directional E-glass/ phenolic and Rayon/ phenolic laminates were made by auto clave vacuum bagging process and their properties were evaluated by destructive and nondestructive testing methods. Laminate with known defect was examined by Ultrasonic method. Effect of modification of matrix system was studied on laminate properties. Composite made with modified phenolic resin was compared with conventional phenolic composite. Defect in the composite was analyzed by UT and Radiography methods. Oxy-acetylene erosion tests were carried out on laminate specimens and data was generated for ablative materials characterization.
Keywords
Ultrasonic, Matrix system, Oxy-acetylene, Radiography.
Author Name Nitin Kotkunde, Nitin Krishnamurthy, A. K. Gupta, S. K. Singh
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.015
Paper Title Development of Modified Arrhenius Model for Ti-6al-4v Alloy to Predict the Flow Stress
Abstract
Strain, strain rate and temperature have a significant impact on the flow stress of a material. To study the impact of these factors on flow stress, experiments are conducted at various strain rates (0.1 - 0.0001s-1) and at various temperatures (323K, 348 K and 373K) on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Stress values are taken for the corresponding strain values at an interval of 0.01(0.01- 0.08). It is observed that the flow stress is a function of strain, strain rate and temperature. The sine-hyperbolic law in an Arrhenius-type equation has been successfully applied for prediction of flow behavior of materials. The original model has been revised several times to suitably represent the flow behavior of various grades of materials. In this model, an exponential strain-dependent parameter was introduced in the sine-hyperbolic constitutive equation to predict the flow stress. The combined effect of the temperature and strain rate on the deformation behavior is represented by the Zener–Hollomon parameter (Z) in an exponent-type equation. It is observed that the predicted flow stresses are in good agreement with the experimental data.
Keywords
Ti-6Al-4V alloy, Plastic behavior, Modified- Arrhenius type equation, Flow stress prediction.
Author Name Lam RatnaRaju, T.K.Nandi
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.016
Paper Title Design Optimization of Perforated Plate Heat Exchangers using Genetic Algorithm
Abstract
Perforated plate heat exchangers (PPHEs) come under the category of compact heat exchanger; offering high effectiveness, large surface area per unit volume (as high as 6000 m2/m3) and better flow characteristics. PPHEs are constructed of alternately arranged perforated plates and spacers. Heat exchanging fluids flow through the holes of the plates and exchange heat by conduction through the plate material. Spacers help minimizing axial conduction and reheadering of fluids intermittently. Design of a compact heat exchanger is targeted for high effectiveness, low volume and minimum pressure drop. Performance of a PPHE depends on many design variables such as plate thickness, spacer thickness, pore diameter, porosity etc. For a given heat duty, these parameters can be optimized for maximizing effectiveness, minimizing volume and minimizing or limiting pressure drop.In this paper an attempt has been made for optimization of the design variables of a PPHE so that effectiveness of the heat exchanger per unit volume is maximized under the constraints of fluid pressure drop and length of the heat exchanger. Unlike the conventional approach, importance is given to the length of the heat exchanger which is limited to the available space inside the vacuum chamber of the diffusion bounding machine or the space available in a specific application. Using the given length of the heat exchanger and allowable pressure drop, the problem has been defined in unconstrained form and solved by Genetic algorithm.
Keywords
Perforated plate heat exchanger; Genetic algorithm; Optimal design
Author Name Pravin Ghatule, S.D.Kore
PDF Download PDF
DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.017
Paper Title Coupled 3D Finite Element Modeling of Electromagnetic Free Expansion of Al Tube
Abstract
In automotive industry there is a general trend of decreasing the vehicle weight which encourages the use light weight metals like aluminium. As EMF can enhance the formability of aluminium it is becoming popular in automotive industry. The limitations of conventional forming like low formability increased wrinkling and springback can be overcome by EMF. As the driving force in EMF is the pulsed magnetic field, it is a contactless forming process which is another advantage over conventional forming. As the EMF process takes place in few microseconds it’s too hard to study it experimentally. EMF is simulated by EM module in LS-DYNATM to predict deformation, current wave pattern, and electromagnetic field.
Keywords
Finite element modeling, Electromagnetic forming process, Current frequency, Skin depth
Author Name P. Das, S.K. Panda, D.K. Pratihar
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.018
Paper Title Modification of Initial Blank Shape to Minimize Earing in Deep Drawing Process
Abstract
Earing is a common defect that occurs in deep drawing process due to non-uniform material properties within the plane of the sheet that is planar anisotropy. In this study, efforts were made to study the earing problem in deep drawing of cylindrical cups by finite element modeling using HYPERWORKS-6.10. Interstitial Free (IF) steel sheet of 1.0 mm thickness has been considered as it has wide application in fabricating critical automobile components. Mechanical properties of IF steel along with tool design parameters were incorporated in the finite element modeling of deep drawing process.Significant earing was observed at rolling and transverse direction in the deformed cup from a circular blank. The cup heights were measured at several points with respect to the rolling direction of the sheet. To minimize earing, flow of material was observed at various steps during the simulation and accordingly initial blank shape had been modified. Modified blanks showed significant reduction in earing and improvement in thickness distribution in simulation.
Keywords
Deepdrwaing; Limiting drawing ratio; Anisotropy; Earing; Finite element modeling.
Author Name Sree Prasanna Rajagopal, Vishnu Ganesh, Amol V. Lanjewar, M. Ravi Sankar
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.020
Paper Title Past and Current Status of Hybrid Electric Discharge Machining (H-EDM) Processes
Abstract
Electric discharge machining (EDM) process is one of the highly used advanced machining process. The material removal mechanism is melting and evaporation electric discharge in EDM process. EDM process has its advantages and disadvantages. To overcome the disadvantages, many researchers are trying to hybrid this process with other process. So, that the hybrid EDM process clubs the advantages of both processes which can increase performance and efficiency compared to EDM process alone. This paper reviews the past and current status of various hybrid EDM processes.
Keywords
EDM; EDDG; Surface roughness; H-EDM; ECSM
Author Name DukhishyamSoren, Prateek Gupta, Mamilla Ravi Sankar
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.021
Paper Title State of Art on Tribomechanical andTribo chemical Wear of Human Dental Enamel
Abstract
The application of tribology in dentistry is one of the rapidly growing and expanding fields. Intensive research has been conducted to understand dental tribology for selection of artificial dental materials. In the current paper, an overview on tribomechanical and tribochemical wear, combined with a description of the different wear simulating equipment and devices which allows us to better understand the multifactorial nature of wear has been presented. Wear and tear of the dental enamel due to tribomechanical factors such as two-body abrasion and three-body abrasion has been emphasized. Dental erosion due to chemical effect and the effect of oral environments has also been considered. In addition to these, overview of wear modes and wear locations has also been covered. According to results obtained by the authors and from the literature, the main progress in the area of dental tribology on natural dental enamel is reviewed.
Keywords
Enamel, Tribology, Dental, Wear.Bucca, Tribochemica
Author Name Ziauddin Khan, AnanyaKundu, YuvakiranParavastu, SubrataPradhan
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.022
Paper Title Ybco Superconductor Characterization under Shear Strain
Abstract
YBCO based high temperature superconductors in practical applications are subjected to shear strain. `Critical current characteristics’ of such high temperature superconductors are known to get degraded in strain state. In this work, shear stresses resulting from the finite twisting of HTS tape having varying widths have been modeled using FEA analysis for different twisting angles. Supporting the findings of this model, an American Superconductor Corporation (AMSC) 2G YBCO tape of a given width has been twisted and experimentally investigated in self field for a given current ramp-rate. Under uniform twist of the YBCO tape at 77 K, the degradation in the current carrying ability up to 30% was observed. The irreversibility in the current carrying ability of HTS tape was also observed beyond the twisting angle per unit length of 25 degree/cm. The superconductor to resistive transition index, `n’ is found to behave in an identical manner to the critical current as a function of twisting angle. Such degradation is largely attributed to the torsional shear strain resulting from the twisting.
Keywords
Coated conductor, Critical current, Shear stress, FEA analysis
Author Name S.S Mahaptra, PragyanParamitaMohanty
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.023
Paper Title Design of Office Chair: A Quality Function Deployment Approach
Abstract
This paper employs a quality function deployment (QFD) methodology to translate customer requirements into design characteristics to improve the design of an office chair. A factor analysis has been carried out on the responses obtained from a cross sectional survey directed at users through a set of questionnaires. It has been obtained that three factors with twenty two items are loaded with a threshold value above 0.7. Finally, quality function deployment is used to extract important design characteristics satisfying the customer requirements.
Keywords
House of Quality Factor Analysis, Quality Function Deployment (QFD),
Author Name Nilrudra Mandal, Biswanath Mondal, Biswanath Doloi, DipanjanSengupta
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.024
Paper Title Effect of Yttria on the Synthesis, Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Partially Stabilized Zirconia in Α-Al2O3Matrix
Abstract
The effect of Y2O3 addition on the phase transition, microstructure and mechanical properties of ultra-fine partially stabilized zirconia (Y-PSZ) in α- Al2O3 matrix prepared by co precipitation process has been studied. In the present work, the degree of phase stabilization of different mol% Y2O3 doped zirconia (Y-PSZ) was studied. 10 vol % Y-PSZ (2-3 mol% Y2O3) in α-Al2O3 matrix was prepared with the simultaneous co-precipitation process. The stabilization of crystallographic and thermal phases was characterized by XRD, TG-DTA. The samples were calcined in the range of 700-800°C. The fabricated samples were sintered at a temperature of 1600°C for 2-4 hrs. The sintered samples were characterized for their physical (such as density) and mechanical properties (flexural strength, hardness and fracture toughness). The morphology and microstructure have been observed by FESEM. It has been observed that the significant improvement in fracture toughness with retention of high hardness in the order of~1700 HV The fracture toughness was in the order of 12.0 MPa.m1/2 with the 10 vol% of Y-PSZ (2.5 mol% Y2O3) in α- Al2O3.
Keywords
Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ); Co-precipitation; Y2O3 doped Zirconia; Fracture Toughness; Hardness Flexural Strength.
Author Name Nitin Krishnamurthy, Yashjeet Singh, A K Gupta, S K Singh
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.025
Paper Title Prediction of Deformation Behavior of Austenitic Stainless Steel 304 in Dynamic Strain Aging Regime
Abstract
The main focus of this paper is prediction of flow stress of Austenitic Stainless Steel 304 in the Dynamic Strain Aging (DSA) regime. For this purpose, a comparative study has been made on the capability of modified Zerilli Armstrong (ZA) model and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) model for representing the flow stress prediction in the DSA Regime. The DSA regime was identified by observing the serrations in the plot between true stress and true strain.The modified-ZA equation for prediction of flow behavior at elevated temperature of the material considers isotropic hardening, temperature softening, strain rate hardening, and the coupled effects of temperature and strain and of strain rate and temperature on the flow stress. Artificial Neural Network is another powerful tool to predict the flow stress behavior which uses a part of the data to train the network while the other is used to validate the model. Suitability of these models was evaluated by comparing the correlation coefficient and absolute average error of prediction. It was observed that the flow stress predictions of ZA model were not as accurate as compared to predictions of ANN model. The resultant value of the correlation coefficient for ZA Model was 0.8889 and that of ANN’s tested data was 0.9990.
Keywords
Austenitic Stainless Steel, Flow Stress, Constitutive model, Zerilli Armstrong model, Artificial Neural Networks
Author Name Nikhil Tatke, Nitin Kotkunde
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.026
Paper Title Numerical Evaluation of Stress Intensity Factor for Inclined-Edge Crack Geometry using Singularity Elements
Abstract
Edge cracks are more dangerous than interior cracks. Free edge close to the crack influences the stress field near the crack tip (since the free edge is traction free).In case of edge crack, the free edge is not only close to the crack, but it intersects the crack. Evaluation of Stress Intensity factor for oblique edge crack geometry is done using commercial FEM software ANSYS and compared with analytical results. The conventional elements always underestimate the sharply rising stress-displacement gradients near the crack tip. Therefore, in order to produce this singularity in stresses and strains Barsoum elements were employed which involves shifting the mid-side nodes to the quarter point locations. It observed that stress intensity factor found by FEM method has good agreement with analytical results..
Keywords
Inclined edge crack, stress intensity factor, Singularity elements
Author Name D C Raval, Kaushal Joshi, Manoj Kumar Gupta, S B Bhatt, Ajai Kumar
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.027
Paper Title Study the Effect of Heat Treatment on SS Material for LIGO-India UHV System
Abstract
LIGO-India under an international collaboration with LIGO-USA, has proposed for construction and operation of a large-scale international detector in India. The detector is 4 km arm-length Michelson Interferometer with Fabry-Perot enhancement arms, and aims to detect fractional changes in the arm-length smaller than 10-23. Ultrahigh Vacuum (UHV) environment is required to detect such low fractional changes by this detector. The optics components, viz., mirrors, beams splitters and the interferometer will be installed in ultrahigh vacuum systems. The Ultrahigh Vacuum system consists of 8 kilometres of beam tubes of 1.2 meter diameter and large corner / end stations. The total volume of the vacuum system is about 10000 m3, vacuum of ~ 10-7 Pascal. This UHV system will be the largest vacuum system in the southern hemisphere. To achieve UHV in such a large system, the selection of material and various surface treatments are very important. We have carried out the study of reduction of outgassing by applying various treatments to the selected material. An experimental system is installed in our lab for this purpose. A number of identical coupons are machined from ~ 3 mm thick SS 304L sheet. These coupons are treated in various heat treatment conditions. One sample with seam weld is also prepared. These coupons checked in a vacuum system for their outgassing rate. The surface of the coupons is analyzed by XRD and SEM. This paper presents the experimental set up and results of the test coupons.
Keywords
Hydrogen outgassing, heat treatment, UHV.
Author Name K.Tamil Mannan,Arkanti Krishnaiah, Siva Prasad Arikatla
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.028
Paper Title Surface Characterization of Electric Discharge Machined Surface of High Speed Steel
Abstract
A comprehensive study of the Surface Characterization of Electric Discharge Machined surface of High Speed Steel work piece was investigated in this Project. EDM tests on High Speed Steel work piece were conducted on a Minor model Modern Machine Tools make Electric Discharge Machine with a transistorized pulse generator having a maximum output of 85 V and 20 A. The test conditions used were Copper electrode with negative polarity, kerosene as dielectric, side flushing, Pulse Current settings of 2, 5, 10, 15 and 20 A, Pulse on-times of 50, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 s with duty factor of 0.5, and 85V open voltage. The Electric Discharge Machined surface morphology was examined with a Metallurgical Microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM-Leo-440 model) with EDX analysis. It was observed that at low pulse current and low pulse on-time, the craters were shallow and the density of global appendages and pockmarks were low, whereas at higher pulse current and pulse on time, the craters were deeper and global appendages were most evident. These global appendages were molten metals, which were expelled randomly during the discharge and later solidified on the work piece surfaces. It is also observed that the EDM conditions have no effect on the microstructure of the bulk material work piece, and the damage caused by the EDM surface is limited to certain depth only. These changes will depend on the variation of pulse current and pulse on-time.
Keywords
Electric discharge machining; Surface characterization, SEM
Author Name B.Sridhar Babu, A.Kumaraswamy , B.Anjaneya Prasad
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.029
Paper Title Relevance of Nanoindentation Experiments in Materials Research-A Review
Abstract
Nano indentation is now commonly used for the study of mechanical properties of materials on the nanoscale.. It offers a direct measure of contact stiffness during the loading portion of an indentation test and, being somewhat insensitive to thermal drift, allows an accurate observation of small volume deformation. Nano scale damage caused by fatigue is of critical importance to the reliability of ultrathin protective overcoats and micro/nanostructures. The cyclic loading used in the nanoidentation makes the technique useful for the evaluation of nanofatigue. Methodologies of the nanoindentation technique used for the characterization of layered materials and nonhomogeneous composites are reviewed and discussed. Applications of the nanoindentation experiments to the measurement of contact stiffness, elastic modulus, hardness, creep resistance, and fatigue properties of the materials are presented. The nanoindentation in conjunction with nanoscratch and friction and wear tests, can be satisfactorily used for the materials characterization of magnetic storage and micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and should find more application
Keywords
Nanoindentation, Hardness, CSM, Fatigue, Fracture toughness
Author Name Manoj Kumar Gupta, Rakesh Kumar, D.C. Raval, Kaushal Joshi, S. B. Bhatt and Ajay Kumar
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.030
Paper Title Role of Material and its Processing for LIGO-India Ultra High Vacuum System
Abstract
LIGO, which stands for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, is a large-scale physics experiment aiming to directly detect gravitational waves. LIGO-India has been proposed for construction and operation of a large-scale international observatory in India in collaboration with LIGO, USA. The observatory consists of large number of optics components, viz., mirrors, beams splitters and the interferometer. All these components will be installed in Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) systems. The Ultrahigh Vacuum system consists of 8 kilometers of beam tubes of 1.2 meter diameter and large size of UHV chambers i.e. Beam Splitter Chambers (BSC), Horizontal Access Modules (HAM). This UHV system will be on of the largest vacuum systems in the southern hemisphere. To achieve UHV in such a large system, the selection of material and various surface treatments are very important. Special care should be taken during fabrication, cleaning, transportation, installation and commissioning. This paper presents all the aspects required for the LIGO-India vacuum system.
Keywords
Mirrors, UHV chambers, Vacuum system
Author Name Bhagyashree Pani, Barsha Dash, Udai P Singh
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.031
Paper Title Metallic Silver from Leach Liquor: A New Approach for Silver Nano Metal Synthesis
Abstract
The leach liquor of a low grade silver ore containing 0.5% Ag is used to produce two varieties of metallic silver following two routes. Route-I leading to silver mould by precipitating out silver chloride with 1.62g/L NaCl and later on roasting the silver chloride with Na2CO3 in 2:1 ratio at 1000°C for 2h. Route-II leading to silver nano metals by treating the leach liquor with 5% (v/v) hydrazine hydrate as reductant and 10mL of 0.01M sodium lauryl sulfate in 100mL of leach liquor as surfactant. The paper first time reports the production of silver nano metal from impure leach liquor. This is a new dimension to the conventional nano metal preparation.
Keywords
Low grade ore, Leaching, Silver, Silver nano particle
Author Name A.Kiran kumar, P.Archana, K Rajanarender Reddy
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.032
Paper Title Condition Monitoring of Steam Turbine through Ferrography
Abstract
Power plants have many sensible equipments like pumps, turbine etc. For higher reliability and continuous generation of power, maintenance has to be done regularly. Many maintenance practices like preventive, predictive, corrective etc are being used. Predictive maintenance is most widely employed in practice. Condition monitoring is a type of predictive maintenance. Most rotating machine defects can be detected by such a system much before dangerous situations occur. It allows the efficient use of stationary online continuous monitoring systems.The machinery used in power plant is often operated continuously for many months; this machinery may fail by wear and tear if they are not having sufficient lubrication. The proper selection and use of lubricants, as well as the care and operation of lubricating systems, is an essential part of any power plant maintenance program.This Paper mainly concentrating on an analysis of used oil for contaminants by ferrogragh.
Keywords
Condition Monitoring, Ferrography, Wear particle analysis, Contaminants in used oil.
Author Name Sajin G. Sajan, Manish Meshram, Pankaj, Palli Srinivas, Suhash R. Dey
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.033
Paper Title Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum 6082 with Mild Steel and its Joint Analyses
Abstract
Friction stir welding is carried out on 6mm thick plates of Al 6082 alloy and mild steel, where various welding parameters like, tool rotation speed (rpm), welding speed (mm/min) have been optimized and a suitable range for all parameters is achieved. After welding, good samples are selected and small specimens are cut from it perpendicular to the weld direction for microhardness and tensile tests. In this research study, the significance of placing the material on advancing and retreating sides especially during the welding of dissimilar materials has been checked, with the help of microstructural characterization technique like energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses
Keywords
Friction stir welding; Dissimilar materials, Tensile strength; Energy dispersive spectroscopy
Author Name Harini Kantamneni, AkhilaGollakota, SwethaNimmagadda
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.034
Paper Title Avant-garde Nanotechnology applications in Automotive Industry
Abstract
Need of mobility all across the world is increasing exponentially. Automobile industry has continuously played a crucial role in the progress of society. The demand of automobiles is increasing rapidly all over the world. The rising economies of various countries will further increase the demand of automobiles. In order to achieve safety, comfort, fuel efficiency while being environment friendly automobile companies are investing heavily in research and development. In this context, nanotechnology is likely to play an important role. Nanotechnology is opening new doors for innovative products and applications in automobile sector. This paper focuses on the advantages of using nano-sized materials in automobiles to increase their durability and efficiency. It briefly explains diverse venues of application of this new technology in the automotive sector.
Keywords
Nanotechnology, Nanomaterials, Automobile.
Author Name S.Akella, B. Ramesh Kumar
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.035
Paper Title Distortion Control in TIG Welding Process with Taguchi Approach
Abstract
Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welding is a widely applied manufacturing process. The weld distortion is one of the major constraints which can not be completely avoided irrespective of material type and thickness. The present paper reports the optimization of weld process parameters with Taguchi approach for the transverse distortion control applied to MS structures of 3 mm thickness with TIG weld process. ANOVA is applied for the optimization of weld parameters control. In this study the transverse distortion of TIG, welding process was evaluated using weld current, root gap, Argon gas flow rate and the weld speed as the main parameters. A L8 orthogonal array was selected for the design of experiments towards the distortion optimization caused by butt welding. It was found from these experiments that Root gap has a major contribution of 43% and Weld current of 36% influence on distortion. Robust design is possible by controlling these parameters and identifying their criticality in process with respect to pooled errors in experiments. Pooled errors include effect of parameters which do not have appreciable contribution towards distortions
Keywords
TIGwelding, Distortion, Taguchimethod, ANOVA, Parameter optimization
Author Name Ritanjali Sethy, C.K. Biswas, Shailesh Dewangan
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.036
Paper Title Multi Response Optimization For Correlated Responses In EDM Using Principal Component Analysis
Abstract
This study presents a new method to determine multi-objective optimal condition using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) Method for Characteristics as Material Removal Rate (MRR), Tool Wear Rate (TWR) and Surface Roughness (Ra) on Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM).In this paper, an attempt has been made to machining the AISI P20 tool steel by using cylindrical copper electrode perform on EDM. A well-designed L27 orthogonal array based on the Taguchi method were conducted on input parameters as current, pulse on time, up-time, working time and inter electrode gap.
Keywords
Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM), AISI P20 tool steel, PCA, PCA-based GRA.
Author Name DaseswaraRaoYendluri, K Sajun Prasad
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.037
Paper Title Biped Robot
Abstract
This paper represents the important features of biped robot in step wise manner. Initially Development design in which lightweight aluminum sheet are used so that it can act as that of human. Walking and kicking behavior is performed by using controller using EyeBot that produces intelligent commands. Dynamic walking control and Stability on orientation motion of biped robot aiming at target object which can be done by visual tracking feedback control walk and that will lead to decision making walk by the use of CCD camera mounted on the head which follows the target. Vision sensors mounted on the robot is used to detect Zero moment point (ZMP), whenever appropriate flexibility around ankle joints are given. It is difficult to generate stable and natural walking motion in various environments
Keywords
Biped robot, Passive dynamic walking, Zero moment point, Walking stability
Author Name T.R. Jawanjal, S.T. Bagde
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.038
Paper Title An Advanced Chamfering System
Abstract
This paper describes a system for automated surface finishing operation. A complete model is developed for chamfering on edge of the square type geometry. An experimental platform is developed for automated chamfering. The advanced chamfering system consists of assembly which have x y table, frame and chamfer tool. The advanced chamfering system approach to finish parts can reduce the manufacturing cost of a part by scrap and rework, and improving the quality.
Keywords
Chamfering operation; XY table; Chamfer tool
Author Name D.Y. Shahare, S. M. Choudhary
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.039
Paper Title Design Optimization of Flywheel of Thresher using FEM
Abstract
This study solely focuses on exploring the effects of flywheel geometry on its energy storage/deliver capability per unit mass ,further defined as specific energy. In this paper we have studied various profiles of flywheel and the stored kinetic energy is calculated for the respective flywheel .various profiles designed are solid disk, disk rim ,webbed/section cut, arm/spoke flywheel. It shows that smart design of flywheel geometry could both have a significant effect on the Specific Energy performance and reduce the operational loads exerted on the shaft/bearings due to reduced mass at high rotational speeds. Efficient flywheel design used to maximizes the inertia of moment for minimum material used and guarantee high reliability and long life. FE analysis is carried out for different cases of loading on the flywheel and maximum von mises stresses and total deformation are determined.
Keywords
Flywheel, Specific energy, Stored kinetic energy
Author Name Arvin Mewar, K.K.S. Mer
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.040
Paper Title Dry Sand Abrasion Wear of Aluminium-Graphite Composite Synthesized in Open Hearth Furnace with Manually Controlled Stirring Method
Abstract
Aluminium alloys are known to have very good mechanical properties but they lack good resistant to wear. By adding solid lubricant particles like graphite into the Aluminium alloy the material shows better tribological properties. The distribution of graphite particles was improved by adding elements like magnesium in the Aluminium matrix. Stir casting is generally used for synthesis of composite due to its simplicity and low cost.In the present work, Aluminium based composite containing graphite particles (5% by weight) and magnesium (5% by weight) in the commercially pure Aluminium alloy was synthesized. The stir casting method was used to synthesize the composite. For the stir casting, the open hearth furnace with a hand-driven stirring arrangement was used. The present work aims to understand the abrasion wear characteristics of the casted composite
Keywords
Aluminium alloys, Tribological, Aluminium matrix
Author Name Chandraveer Singh, K.K.S.Mer
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.041
Paper Title Abrasion Wear Characterization of Al-Al2O3 in-situ Particulate Composite Synthesized in Open Hearth Furnace with Manually Controlled Stirring Method
Abstract
Particulate metal matrix composites (PMMCs) have proved their viability as good alternatives to conventional alloys in high strength and stiffness applications but they are still long away from high-volume commercial production. PMMCs are a special category of virtually isotropic composites. PMMCs contain different variety of the particles either hard or soft or their mixtures in a ductile metal or alloy matrix. Therefore, PMMCs combine metallic properties (ductility and toughness) with the characteristics of reinforcement particles, often leading to greater strength, higher wear resistance and better properties at elevated temperature depending on the nature of particles. In the recent past researchers are concentrating on the easy low cost techniques for the synthesis of PMMCs, like stir casting.In the present work cast particle reinforced composites containing in-situ generated reinforcement Alumina particles have been synthesized by solidification of slurry obtain by dispersion of externally added Manganese Dioxide (MnO2) particles in the molten aluminium. Alumina particles have been generated by the reaction of the Manganese Dioxide with molten Aluminium. The chemical reaction also releases Manganese in to molten Aluminium which increases the strength of the matrix. Magnesium is added to the melt in order to help wetting of alumina particles in molten Aluminium and to retain the particles inside the melt. The present work also investigates the abrasion wear properties of the resulting cast in-situ composites. In the present work the Aluminium alloy (Al + 5% Mg) matrix composite reinforced with Alumina particles have been synthesized in the open hearth furnace with the hand stirring method. The present work shows the effect of the reinforcement on the abrasion wear properties of casted alloy and casted composites. The present work also compares the abrasion wear properties of pure Aluminium, the casted alloy and the casted composites.
Keywords
Pmmcs, Al Matrix Composite, In-Situ, Abrasion Wear, Mno2.
Author Name Amit Joshi, K.K.S. Mer
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.042
Paper Title Optimization of Abrasive wear Characteristics of Tungsten Carbide and Chromium Carbide based coating on Mild Steel deposited by Detonation Gun Process using Taguchi Method
Abstract
Mild steel forms the basis of almost every industry, the present industrial system survives on the soul of some of the basic elements and their systematic properties like strength, toughness, hardness, failure stress etc. Along with these major properties some properties are such they may seem to be less important and not considered but for the long run they play major part in the life and working of material. One such property is the abrasive wear property of the material. Though the abrasion in one run of the system looks very negligible and not considerate but when the mechanism of abrasion is taken into consideration on the large machinery like the turbines and turbo propellers this becomes very important and its consideration forms the major study part. The present study generally works on the abrasion wear often called as a three body wear system on mild steel and the coating of tungsten carbide and chromium carbide on it ,which is deposited by the detonation gun process, the testing is performed on the dry rubber wheel abrasion testing machine at various varying parameter like the velocity of the rubber wheel, normal load applied on the machine and the coating component itself ,hence for the above a design of experiment matrix is formed, the solution of the matrix is done using the Taguchi method of optimization. This method not only determines the significant interactions and respective factors but also determines the significant interaction factor combination. Finally, genetic algorithm, a very popular evolutionary approach, is employed to optimize the factor settings for minimum specific wear rate under specific experimental conditions. The experimentation described is expected to be highly useful in the various large scale assemblies like the turbine assembly (the rotor part), and also in the areas such as construction aerospace sector.
Keywords
Tungsten Carbide, Chromium Carbide, Taguchi method, GA.
Author Name Pankaj K. Bhoyar, C.M. Sedani, Monika S. Agrawal
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.043
Paper Title FEA of Superplastically formed Front Fender Car Panel
Abstract
Superplastic forming (SPF) is a near net-shape forming process which offers many advantages over conventional forming operations including low forming pressure under low flow stress, low die cost, more design flexibility, and the ability to shape hard metals to form complex shapes. However, low production rate due to slow forming process and limited predictive capabilities provides lack of accurate constitutive models for superplastic deformation, treated as an obstacle to the widespread use of SPF. Recent advancements in finite element tools have shown while analyzing the complex superplastic forming operations. These tools can be utilized successfully in order to develop optimized superplastic forming techniques to develop the future materials.To present the discussion mentioned above an analysis of superplastically formed front Fender car panel using HYPERFORM 9.0 software is elaborated here. Present work consist of a finite element simulations of superplastic forming of aluminum 5182 & 8090 alloy sheet in to the front fender panel of car is carried out at 4600C-5000C temperature to estimate the pressure tonnage, % thinning & major & minor strain in terms of FLD curve. Further analysis is carried out by increasing the blank holder pressure & compares the results from different pressure levels (low, medium & high), by considering better pressure level comparison of Al alloy 5182 sheet to the Al-Li alloy 8090 sheet has been explained. The major objective of present paper is to introduce the future material as a substitute in automobile industries.
Keywords
Aluminum Alloy 5182 & 8090, Superplastic forming, Front fender, Finite Element Simulation
Author Name Kashi .V. Allamraju.
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.044
Paper Title Materials used for Renewable energy resources
Abstract
The global demand for energy is currently growing beyond the limits of installable generation capacity. To meet future energy demands efficiently, energy security and reliability must be improved and alternative energy sources must be investigated aggressively. An effective energy solution should be able to address long-term issues by utilizing alternative and renewable energy sources. Of the many available renewable sources of energy, solar energy is clearly a promising option as it is extensively available. . Solar energy is the most abundant, inexhaustible and clean of all the renewable energy resources till date. The power from sun intercepted by the earth is about 1.8 × 1011 MW, which is many times larger than the present rate of all the energy consumption. Photovoltaic technology is one of the finest ways to harness the solar power. Solar power, especially as it reaches more competitive levels with other energy sources in terms of cost, may serve to sustain the lives of millions of underprivileged people in developing countries. Furthermore, solar energy devices can benefit the environment and economy of developing countries. This paper reviews the different materials used for solar energy absorption as a need for the utilization of alternative energy sources for the whole world and the importance of doing research in alternative energy resources.
Keywords
Alternative energy resources, Transparant conductors, Nanofluids
Author Name PPC Prasad, ChaitanyaRaju P, T.VijayaShyaama.
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.045
Paper Title Fully Automatic Cage Brightening Process Equipment
Abstract
Automation greatly improves consistency of accuracy and productivity. This paper deals with the automation of Cage Brightening Process Equipment for cleaning bearings. In manual cleaning process the loading of bearings must be done manually and are cleaned in a closed container using solvents or by spraying for small bearings. The loading and unloading are done manually. To reduce the time taken for the manual process automation is done. Cage brightening refers to the cleaning process of the bearing which has cage like structure. The purpose of the cage is to hold and separate the rolling elements of the bearing. The importance of the cage brightening is to make the bearings dirt free, rust free and it also minimizes the friction losses.The entire process consists of three systems: Mechanical system contains six station rotary transfer line, Pneumatic system consists of pneumatic supply and pneumatic controls and Electronic system. This system is very efficient for cleaning of bearings as each bearing is cleaned at three different work stations and dried by using hot air. The bearings are free from the residues and works efficiently. A bearing is a machine element that constrains the relative motion between the moving parts to only the desired motion. Cage brightening is an important process in industries because bearings require periodic maintenance to prevent premature failure
Keywords
Bearings Shear-gradient, Bearings
Author Name Saurabh Kumar Gupta , K.N. Pandey
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.046
Paper Title Application of Taguchi Method for Optimization of Friction Stir Welding Process Parameters to Joining of Al Alloy
Abstract
In this study, the joining of 6061-T4 Al alloy plates are carried out using friction stir welding (FSW) process and the process parameters are optimized using Taguchi method. The rotational speed, welding speed and axial force are the process parameters taken into consideration. The optimum process parameters are determined with reference to tensile strength of the joint. The results indicate that the rotational speed is highest significant parameter to deciding the tensile strength of the joint. The result shows that optimal values of process parameters are to get a maximum tensile strength of friction stir welded AA 6061 is 162 MPa.
Keywords
Friction Stir Welding, Aluminium Alloy, Tensile Strength, Taguchi Method
Author Name S.K. Malhotra , Dineshwaran Vijayakumar, M. Mudhukrishnan, , K. Chandrasekaran
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.047
Paper Title Some Studies on Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics Laminates Fabricated by Film Stacking Method
Abstract
Till early 1990’s fiber reinforced polymer composites were based mainly on thermosetting polymers. In recent years, a rapid growth has occurred in fiber reinforced thermoplastics (FRTP) composites because of their higher toughness, impact resistance, damage tolerance and recyclability. High melt viscosity of thermoplastics presents many challenges to its processing. Newer technological developments have made thermoplastics composites viable. In the present work, glass-polypropylene, glass-polystyrene and jute-polypropylene composite laminates are fabricated by film stacking process. Film stacking is a technique for plying thermoplastics film/ sheet and fibrous reinforcement using heat and pressure. Selection of processing parameters (pressure, temperature and dwell time) for achieving optimum properties is required. Pressures applied were 4.0, 6.0, 7.5, 10.0, 15.0, 20.0 MPa and temperatures used were 200 and 210 deg C for polypropylene matrix composites; 255 and 260 deg C for polystyrene matrix composite laminates. FRTP laminates produced were characterized for various mechanical properties. Further work to arrive at optimum process parameters for different FRTP materials is in progress.
Keywords
Fiber Reinforcement, Thermoplastics, Film Stacking, Mechanical Properties
Author Name D.D.Balsaraf, S.P.Ambade, A.P.Patil, Y.M.Puri
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.048
Paper Title Literature Review on Analysis of Sensitization and Corrosion of Ferritic Stainless Steel (FSS) by Different Welding Processes
Abstract
This paper deals with the review of different literature. The review focuses light on analysis of sensitization and corrosion by the different authors for controlling sensitization and corrosion in ferritic stainless steel by using different welding processes. Besides the problem of low ductility and poor toughness of ferritic stainless steel, welds due to the microstructures characteristics of the weld section as a result of weld heat input rate and heat transfer rate factor , susceptibility to intergranular corrosion caused by the depletion of the chromium content of the weld matrix particularly in the HAZ is a major concern limiting the full deployment of the material in certain engineering application regardless its attractive economics combined with moderate strength and excellent corrosion characteristics of AISI 409 M. Ferritic stainless steel during welding (TIG,MIG, and SMAW) have been investigated. Its sensitization and corrosion can be evaluated by chemical exposure of the weld cross section. Then the characteristics of sensitization and corrosion can be analyzed using scanned electron microscope. This review concluded that variation in heat input resulted in significant changes in the mechanical properties of the weld which results on the sensitization and corrosion.
Keywords
Sensitization, FSS, SEM, Corrosion.
Author Name Saurabh A. Bobde, S.D. Kshirsagar
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.049
Paper Title Improving the Sink Roll life in Galvalume
Abstract
Galvalume is a Continuous Galvanizing Line. JSW Ispat Steel Ltd. Kalmeshwar has to frequently replace the sink roll assembly used in Zn-Al tank of the Galvalume. The mean time between replacements is very less as compared to expected mean time between failures (expected MTBF). This is due to deposition of zinc dross on the surface of roller. This result in uneven or improper Zn-Al coating on sheet surface. To avoid this sink roll has to replaced. The frequent replacement of roller assembly results in Stoppage of production, material loss, start-up loss and increased cost of production. This paper proposes an alternative material to extend the life of sink roll.
Keywords
Galvalume, Sink roll, Zinc dross, Coating, MTBF.
Author Name D. Dash, S. Samanta, S.S. Gautam, M. Murlidhar
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.050
Paper Title Mechanical Characterizations of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials
Abstract
The present work consists of mechanical characterization of Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites (NFRC) consisting of epoxy resin reinforced with jute fiber and bamboo fiber. Hand lay-up technique was used for fabrication of the composite specimens. The specimens were prepared according to the ASTM D3039 and D3410 standards for tensile and compressive test respectively. Experimentation was carried out using INSTRON 8801. The results were compared with the glass/epoxy composite. The effect of fiber orientation (0 /90 , 15 /-75 , 30 /-60 , and 45 /-45 ) was analyzed and it shows that the fiber orientation of 0 /90 provides higher strength and stiffness than other fiber orientations used in this work. For compressive test jute composite shows higher strength as compared to bamboo composite but it is not at par with glass composites.
Keywords
Natural fiber, Epoxy resin, Glass epoxy, Handlay-up, Fiberorientation, Mechanical properties.
Author Name Reddy Sreenivasulu, Ch.Srinivasa Rao
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.077
Paper Title Modeling and Optimization of Thrust force and Torque during Drilling of Aluminum 6061 Alloy Using Taguchi–Grey Analysis Approach
Abstract
Drilling, a hole producing process is especially important because it accounts for a large portion of overall machining operations. Amongst all machining operations, drilling using twist drill is the most commonly applied method for generating holes for riveting and fastening structural assemblies. It is well known that the drill point geometry has a significant effect of the thrust force of a twist drill. The present research initiative in an attempt to investigate the relative significance of the drilling parameters such as point angle, clearance angle, speed, feed rate and drill diameter on the thrust force and torque using Taguchi-Grey relational analysis. Drilling operations have been conducted over a wide a range of cutting condition. Spindle speed varied in the range 600 rpm to 1000 rpm in 3steps, Feed rate varied from 0.3 to 0.6mm /rev in 3 steps. High-speed steel (HSS) drills of 3 different diameters (8mm, 10mm and 12mm) and different point angles have been used for drilling of 27 through holes on 10mm depth with variable combination of soluble oil mixing with pure water on Aluminum 6061 alloy. A drill tool dynamo meter was used to record the thrust force and torque. In grey relational analysis can be used to represent the grade of correlation between two sequences so that the distance of two factors can be measured discretely. In the case where experiments are ambiguous or when the experimental method cannot be carried out exactly, grey analysis helps to compensate for the shortcoming in statistical regression .Grey relation analysis is an effective means of analyzing the relationship between sequences with less data and can analyze many factors that can overcome the disadvantages of statistical method.
Keywords
Drilling, Thrust force, Torque, Orthogonal Array, Grey relational analysis
Author Name Mandal K. K.
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.051
Paper Title Development of an ANN Model to Predict Surface Roughness During Cryogenic Machining Operation
Abstract
This research paper deals with the advanced manufacturing technique in addition to high speed machining which can be achieved by improving machining parameters through cryogenic cooling approach instead of conventional cooling system. Industrial growth and globalizationaim to increase the material removal rate maintaining very good surface finish and high machining accuracy even for harder, difficult to cut materials. Also, it should be possible at lower overall cost of manufacturing as well as maintaining an eco-friendly environment. Cutting tool fails due to high-elevated temperature and plastic deformation. Also the material is removed due to ploughing and rubbing instead of ideal shearing under conventional cooling method. Moreover, for ductile material cutting, heat causes a "stickiness" which produces material build-up on the edge of cutting tool known as "welding." This results a bad odor, smoke, health hazards and water penetration into the machine bearings. To improve the surface roughness i.e. to maintain the tool’s form stability for longer time, cutting zone temperature is to be maintained low. Liquid nitrogen used as coolant can reduce the cutting zone temperature to a greater extent and thereby helps to retain the shape of cutting edge of cutting tool for a longer time. Also HSTR alloys, MMC may also be machined economically because of low tool wear rate and easy chip breakability. In this present problem, an ANN model has been developed to predict tool wear during cryogenic machining using back propagation feed-forward network algorithm and four hidden layers feed forward architecture.
Keywords
High Speed Machining, Surface Roughness, Cryogenic Cooling, ANN Model.
Author Name Y. M. Puri, A. P. Patil, P. S. Durugkar, Y. M. Puri
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.052
Paper Title Review on Finite Element Analysis of Temperature Distribution in Heat Affected Zone by Different Welding Process
Abstract
This work has reviewed models and techniques for predicting the temperature distributions. The metal adjacent to a weld is exposed to severe thermal events. As a result, complex changes in metallurgical structure occur in heat affected zone region.When creating a numerical model, the aim is to implement the physical behaviour of the process into the model. However, it may be necessary to compromise between accuracy of the model and the required computational time. Different types of simplifications of the problem and more efficient computation methods are discussed
Keywords
Finite element method; Heat affected zone; Temperature distribution
Author Name B.Srinivas, Ch. Srinivasu, Banda Mahesh, Md Aqheel
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.053
Paper Title A Review on Severe Plastic Deformation
Abstract
In the recent years much attention has been paid to the development of ultra-fine grained and nanostructured materials due to their superior properties. Several severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques have emerged in the recent years for producing ultra fine grained materials in bulk metals and alloys. Among the various SPD techniques proposed most of the methods are intended for processing bulk materials; very few methods like Equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP),High pressure torsion (HPT)technique ,constrained groove pressing (CGP) and repetitive corrugation and straightening (RCS) are capable of processing sheet materials. The requirement of stringent surface preparation the propensity of cracking due to de-lamination of accumulative roll bonded layersand formation of edge cracks limits the application of ARB processed sheets. Meanwhile in RCS process elongation of sheets causes strain inhomogeneity. The recently invented CGP process sans above mentioned problems is considered method for producing fine grained sheet materials for structural applications .A further defining feature of SPD techniques is that the preservation of shape is achieved due to special tool geometries which prevent the free flow of material and thereby produce a significant hydrostatic pressure. The presence of a high hydrostatic pressure, in combination with large shear strains, is essential for producing high densities of crystal lattice defects, particularly dislocations, which can result in a significant refining of the grains
Keywords
Severe Plastic deformation; Equal-channel angular pressing; Constrained groove pressing; High pressure torsion (HPT)technique
Author Name P.Divakara Rao, Krishnam Raju, V.Sreenivasulu, K.Santosh
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.054
Paper Title Design of Air Condition & Distribution Systems
Abstract
The objective of an Air conditioning (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning) system is to control the temperature, humidity, air movement, and air cleanliness, normally with mechanical means, to achieve thermal comfort. Centralized HVAC system installations utilize a number of separate components that are field assembled to serve the specific needs of an individual building.
Keywords
Centralized Hvac, Single Duct, Constant Volume, Single Zone Systems.
Author Name R. Ramesh, N. Murugan
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.055
Paper Title Microstructure and Metallurgical Properties of Aluminium 7075 – T651 Alloy / B4c 4 % Vol. Surface Composite by Friction Stir Processing
Abstract
Friction stir processing (FSP) is an emerging novel, green and energy efficient processing technique to fabricate surface composites which is based on the basic principles of friction stir welding. The distinct advantages of friction stir processing are microstructural refinement, densification, homogeneity, accurate control and variable depth of the processed zone. Metal matrix composites, particularly Aluminium based metal matrix composites, reinforced with ceramics were developed as an alternative to materials with superior strength to weight ratio and strength to cost ratio, high stiffness, and thermal stability, which effect on improving wear, creep and fatigue resistance. However, these composites also suffer from low ductility and toughness due to the incorporation of ceramic reinforcements. For many applications, a combination of high surface wear resistance and high toughness of the interior bulk material required. In those situations, it is desirable that only the surface layer of components is reinforced with ceramic particles while the bulk retains the original composition and structure with higher toughness. In this paper, the details about the fabrication of Al 7075-T651 B4C surface composite by FSP to have improved surface hardness are provided. A tool made of high carbon high chromium steel and hardened to 62 HRC, having cylindrical profile was used for FSP. By using SYSTAT software regression model has been developed for predicting microhardness of processed surface composite. The fabricated surface composites were examined using optical microscope and found defect free friction stir processed zone. It was also observed that Boron Carbide particles were uniformly distributed and well bonded with the matrix alloy fabricated at high heat input condition. It was found that the average hardness of friction stir processed surface composite was 1.5 times higher than that of the base metal aluminium 7075 – T651. The increase in hardness was attributed to fine dispersion of B4C particles and fine grain size of the aluminium matrix.
Keywords
Friction Stirprocessing, Boron Carbide, Brinell Hardness, Optical Microscope, Design Of Experiments.
Author Name R.Balaji Rao, Ch. Krishan Kishore Reddy
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.056
Paper Title Transport Properties and Scaling Spectra of Lithium Gallium Titanate Phosphate Glass Ceramics Materials
Abstract
Lithium gallium phosphate glass samples were synthesized through melt quenching by varying lithium oxide, titanium oxide and gallium oxide concentrations. The de-polymarizability of glass ceramic samples was identified by Hurby’s parameter (Kgl) with the data of DTA traces. Impedance measurements were made on all the glass ceramic samples at different temperatures. The bulk resistance (R) for all the samples relative to each experimental temperature is deduced from the intercept of imaginary Z″ impedance with real Z′ impedance axes. The activation energy for conduction (Ea) is obtained from the temperature dependent of conductivity data, which is fitted to Arrhenius equation. The single super curve in the scaling spectra suggested the temperature independent conductivity phenomenon
Keywords
Lithium phosphate glasses; Differntial thermal analysis; Electrical properties
Author Name A.Anitha Lakshmi
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.057
Paper Title KBE approach towards design automation of Francis turbine spiral casing
Abstract
A knowledge based engineering (KBE) approach has been preferred over the traditional design approach which majorly relies on the expert designer who has to look over many requirements like specifications, Libraries of standard items, physical laws, material properties, best practices, design approaches and results in KBE Approach, a knowledge base is leveraged to automate the iterative design process. Similar approach has adopted to design and develop an automated application using Uni-graphics NX and Knowledge Fusion, which will assist the designers in creating new designs of Spiral Case as per the requirements. Validation of the design is also done. This results in an overall reduction in the design cycle time for Hydro Turbine by 65%.
Keywords
Spiral casing, Design automation, KBE,Unigraphics NX KF
Author Name V.Sreenivasulu, P.Divakara Rao, Anoop kumar, B.D.G.N.Kumar
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.058
Paper Title Design of Centrifugal Pump for Palm Fruit Pulp Handling in Palm Oil Plant.
Abstract
For the design of pump the system resistance (total head) is calculated by considering head and capacity correction factor for 5% consistency of pulp. This factor is taken from data book. Power required and specific speed calculated by standard formulae. For pulp pumps above 3% consistency semi open impeller is preferable. Impeller vane angles, number of vanes, vane curvatures are designed as per standards. Casing is considered as volute type. While designing of volute casing volute angle, throat area and tongue distance are designed as per standards. The shaft is designed as per power required by the pump. Designing of stuffing box and flexible coupling are done based on the shaft diameter by standard proportions. The thrust load and radial loads on the bearings are calculated and deep groove ball bearings are selected for withstanding that loads. The results obtained are compared with the operating parameters of the existing pump in our Palm oil plant and observed that the design is matching with the exist one.
Keywords
Palm Oil Plant, Centrifugal Pump.
Author Name V. J. Mathai, H. K. Dave, Keyur P. Desai, H. K. Raval
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.059
Paper Title Study of Micro Hole Characteristics on Al 1100 During MEDM – an Empirical Approach
Abstract
Dependency of dimensional characteristics of micro structures on machining conditions in a process like micro EDM (µEDM) has been widely reported by various researchers. In this paper, attempt to generate empirical models that give idea about the accuracy level of the micro holes drilled on Al 1100 sheets during micro ED drilling using tungsten rods of 300µm diameter as electrode has been made. Dimensional accuracy of the holes has been quantified in terms of radial overcuts at top and bottom side and taper angle of the micro hole. The models have been generated using non-linear regression based on Gauss Newton method. The data required for the model generation has been generated from experiments conducted on the basis of Taguchi method using L16 orthogonal array with Gap voltage, Capacitance, Pulse ON time, Aspect ratio and Electrode rotation as input parameters. The prediction based on the generated models has been verified with randomly selected set of experiments and are found to be in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results.
Keywords
Micro EDM, Empirical modeling, Radial overcuts, Taper angle, Micro hole quality, Error analysis, Foil based EDM
Author Name V.J.K.Kishor Sonti, C. Karthick
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.060
Paper Title Active Filter Design using Bulk Driven Operational Transconductance Amplifier Topology
Abstract
In this paper, an Active filter design using OTA has been done. Operational transconductance amplifier is taking input as a voltage and produces output as a current at the output terminal. Active filter design using operational transconductance amplifier such as Low pass filter (LPF), High pass filter (HPF), Band pass filter (BPF), Band rejection filter (BRF),(or) notch filter are implemented. The total number of components used in these circuits is small, and design equation and voltage- control characteristics are attractive. Active filter designs using the transconductance amplifier are discussed. It is shown that these structures offer improvements in design simplicity and compared to op amp based structures as well as reduced component count. Simulation results of the design have been obtained and cutoff frequencies for low pass filter at 1.5 kHz, where as high pass filter 20 kHz and Bandwidth 700 kHz. At Transconductance of 10nA/v. This work has been carried out using Pspice Simulation software and the results obtained are in accordance with theoretical facts
Keywords
Ota, Active Filters, Gain, Frequency.
Author Name Ramesh Rudrapati , AsishBandyopadhyay ,Pradip Kumar Pal
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.061
Paper Title Multi-Objective Optimization in Traverse Cut Cylindrical Grinding
Abstract
Present work aims to study the effects of grinding parameters on surface roughness (Ra and Rq) in traverse cut cylindrical grinding process, while grinding of stainless steel. Experiments have been conducted as per L9 orthogonal array of Taguchi method. Grey based Taguchi method has been used to optimize the grinding parameters to minimize surface roughness parameters Ra and Rq simultaneously. The analysis of signal to noise ratio has been applied to investigate the effects of grinding parameters and optimize them. From the results of this study, longitudinal feed is identified as the most influential grinding parameter on surface roughness. The optimization methodology used in the present study of cylindrical grinding process is very useful to determine the optimum grinding parameters for minimum surface roughness.
Keywords
Cylindricalgrinding, Surfaceroughness, Multiobjective optimization, Greyrelationalanalysis, Taguchimethod, Analysis of variance
Author Name P.R. Kulkarni, Mahendra, U. Gaikwad.
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.062
Paper Title Static and Dynamic Analysis of End Mill Tool for Stability
Abstract
Milling is a very commonly used manufacturing process in the industry due to its versatility to generate complex shapes in variety of materials at high quality. Due to the advances in machine tool , CNC, CAD/CAM, cutting tool and high speed machining technologies in last couples of decades ,the volume and the importance of milling have increased in key industries such as aerospace ,die/ mold, automotive and component manufacturing. But however the unstable machining (namely chatter vibration) is one of the main limitations for high speed machining which shortens the tool life and decreases machined surface quality. In this paper static and dynamic analysis of end mill tool with different geometry is carried out by Finite element analysis (FEA), also some practical equations are developed to predict the static and dynamic properties of end mill tool And the results obtained by both the methods are nearly same. However in case of static analysis amount of deflection of tool for a particular value of cutting force can be easily determined, while in case of dynamic (modal) analysis natural frequencies and mode shapes can be determined.
Keywords
Deep drwaing; Limiting drawing ratio; Anisotropy; Earing; Finite element modeling.
Author Name K Sadashivappa, M.C.Murugesh
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.063
Paper Title Effect of Notch Orientation, Temperature and Filler Material on Impact Toughness of GFRP Composites
Abstract
The effect of notch orientation, service temperature and filler material on the impact durability of glass fabric composite have been experimentally investigated. The results of the experimental analysis carried out on the impact toughness of these laminates have been reported. Impact tests were conducted on the specimens with two notch configurations. Results have shown that the notch along the laminate is highly prone to the catastrophic failure and the notch across the laminates will sustain the impact loads to a considerable extent. The results have revealed that there is a particular level of service temperature within which these components will yield maximum strength. The durability of laminates with 60% of glass and 40% of epoxy was found to be very high compared to the other two types. With respect to addition of filler material higher the percentage of filler material greater the toughness values and TiO2 filler material has shown greater toughness than graphite filler material
Keywords
Polymer composites, Impactstrength, Service temperature, Filler material.
Author Name S. B. Tuljapure, Laxminarayan Sidram Kanna
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.064
Paper Title Analysis on Stability Bar
Abstract
Vehicle anti-roll bars are suspension components used for limiting body roll angle. They have a direct effect on the handling characteristics of the vehicle. Design changes of anti-roll bars are quite common at various steps of vehicle production, and a design analysis must be performed for each change. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) can be effectively used in design analysis of anti-roll bars. However, due to high number of repeated design analyses, the analysis time and cost problems associated with the use of general FEA package programs may create considerable. Disadvantages in using these package programs for performing anti-roll bar design analysis.In this study, an automated design program is developed for performing design analysis of vehicle anti-roll bars. The program is composed of two parts, the user interface and the FEA macro. The FEA macro includes the codes for performing deformation, stress, fatigue, and modal analysis of anti-roll bars in ANSYS 10. The user interface, which is composed in Visual Basic 8.0, includes the forms for data input and result output procedures. By the developed software, the FEA of the anti roll bars is simplified to simple data entry via user interface. The flow of the analysis is controlled by the program and the finite element analysis is performed by ANSYS at the background. The developed software can perform design analysis for a wide range of anti-roll bars: The bar centerline can have any 3D shape, the cross section can be solid or hollow circular, the end connections can be of pin or spherical joint type, the bushings can be mounted at any position on the bar with a user defined bushing length. The effects of anti-roll bar design parameters on final anti-roll bar properties are also evaluated by performing sample analyses with the automated design program developed in this study.
Keywords
FEA, ANSYS, Anti-roll bars
Author Name R.Ramanarayanan, C. Venkateshwar Reddy, R.Aditya
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.065
Paper Title Characterization of Epoxy based Composites for Light Weight and High Strength Applications for Air-Frame Structures
Abstract
Metals are not suitable materials for aerospace applications due to their high density and therefore composite materials are used as substitute due to their light weight and high strength characteristics. Composite materials especially carbon-epoxy composites are especially strength bearing materials useful in aero space applications used as airframe structures . Filament winding process, tape wound process, and molding processes are used for fabrication of air frame structures, which are capable to mechanical loads when compared to other materials. Bi-directional carbon-epoxy composites are representative materials to filament tape wound components of air frame structure. This study is tried to analyse the fiber volume fraction of the composites with effective consolidation (low thickness) of layers by applying vacuum and pressure during curing of the laminate. Mechanical properties like tensile, flexural and inter laminar shear strength for carbon-epoxy (LY556+HT972),bi-directional composites with different process parameters to fiber volume fraction with low thickness. The results from the study have demonstrated that the composites cured with vacuum and pressure is exhibiting improvement in tensile strength, flexural strength due to high fiber volume fraction.
Keywords
Carbon, epoxy, Mechanical properties, Fiber volume fraction
Author Name Yatheshth Anand, Varun Dutta
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.066
Paper Title Testing of Composites: A Review
Abstract
Manufacturers from various industries always strive to produce structures that are lighter, stronger, offer greater corrosion resistance and exhibit other required properties; than those of the traditionally available materials. Composite materials offer a solution to all the needs of these manufacturer(s). Composites are complex structures made of a variety of different polymers, metals, and ceramic materials. Composite materials are being used increasingly in a wide variety of products and applications. Ever-increasing performance demands in the industries viz. the aerospace, automotive, and environmentally sustainable-energy systems requires a wider range of physical and mechanical testing. Testing of composites for physical and mechanical properties is required to characterize and understand the performance of these materials. Testing of composite materials includes high force tension and compression, impact, flexure, shear, rheology, and fatigue tests under a range of environmental and/or experimental conditions. Mechanical testing is an important step in the "building block" approach to design of composite aircraft structures. Mechanical testing instruments are configured using a range of fixtures that have been developed to provide various ways to test composite materials depending on the type of material and its intended end use. In this paper various methods of testing composite materials has been discussed in details. The paper also provides a source of information about the current testing methods through which the advanced composites can be evaluated to yield satisfactory results
Keywords
Composites, Mechanical testing
Author Name V. Bapi Raju,V. Balakrishna Murthy, J. Swetha Srinivas,
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.067
Paper Title Non-Linear Analysis of Composite Beams
Abstract
When a structure deforms, under a load its stiffness changes. Depending upon the amount of change in the stiffness, the field variables are calculated using linear or nonlinear approaches. In this paper linear and geometric non-linear analysis of a FRP composite beam is carried out using two-dimensional finite element method by simulating the problem in commercial software ANSYS. Influence of the parameters (i) span to height ratios(s) and (ii) Load on geometrical non-linear behavior of the beam for a fixed width-to-height ratio (b/h) of 0.2 is studied.
Keywords
Linear Analysis, Plane stress, Stiffness, FEM, ANSYS, FRP composites
Author Name L. Sasi Rekha Lathan, B. Surekha, Pandu R Vundavilli
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.068
Paper Title Multi-Objective Optimization of Green Sand Mould System Parameters using Particle Swarm Optimization
Abstract
This paper deals with multi-objective optimization of green sand mould system using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). It is important to note that the quality of cast products in green sand moulds is largely influenced by the mould properties (that is, responses), such as green compression strength, permeability, hardness and bulk density, which depend on the input (process) parameters (that is, grain fineness number, % clay, % water and number of strokes). In this study, non-linear regression equations developed between the control factors (process parameters) and responses have been considered for optimization utilizing PSO. An attempt is being made to form a single objective, after considering all the four individual objectives, to obtain a compromise solution, which satisfies all the four objectives. The results of this study show a good agreement with the experimental results
Keywords
Green sand mould, Optimization, Particle swarm optimization
Author Name P.Divakara Rao, B.V.K.Murthy, V.Sreenivasulu, M.Kishore
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.069
Paper Title Reduction of Ream Packing Machine Engineering Downtime by 50% from Current Level.
Abstract
Ream packing machine engineering downtime is one of the major problem in finishing house .Due to this internal customer do not get the desired quantity as per the order quantity. And also we unable to run the sheeters due to floor jamming .This leads to internal customer dissatisfaction. This project is aimed to reduce the overall engineering downtime of ream packing machine by 50% from current level
Keywords
Ram packing machine, Ammonia plant,DDPY.
Author Name R.UdayKumar, G.Chandramohan Reddy
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.070
Paper Title Evaluation of Erichsan Number and Peak Load of Sheet Metals
Abstract
The formability characteristics such as Erichsan number and peak load can be determined through the Erichsan cupping test. This test is inverted deep drawing with stretching methodology. In this test a spherical punch is used to evaluate the formability characteristics of sheet metals. In deep drawing process the sheet is formed to cup shape. Due to punch force, the tensile forces produced sheet metal and it is stretched radially, but it circumferentially compressed as its diameter decreases. If these stresses reach critical level characteristics of the material thickness, it causes slight undulations known as buckles. Buckles may develop into more pronounced undulations or waves known as wrinkles. Formation of wrinkles in cup depends on blank holding pressure. In Erichsan cupping test, a single specimen with required dimension drawn into cup until the fracture occurred at dome of cup by the force applied through continuous movement of hemispherical punch into specimen of sheet metal. In this test the cup height at fracture and peak load is measured. These are used as a measure of the formability index. Cup height at fracture in ‘mm’ is measured as Erichsan number. Cup height at fracture is used as the measure of stretchability. The formability can be expressed as erichsan number and peak load. In this test the formability characteristics of sheet metals such as alloys of aluminum, mild steel, titanium and also cartridge brass are studied through finite element analysis
Keywords
Erichsan number, Formability, Stretching , Peak load
Author Name P.Divakara Rao, Y.Vijaya Kumar, V.Sreenivasulu, G.V.Subba Rao
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.071
Paper Title Design of Centralized Oil Lubrication for Writing & Printing Paper Plant
Abstract
Every moving part on a machine benefits from timely and effective lubrication to help reduce wear, minimize lubricant consumption and maximize efficiency. These benefits can be more fully realized by introducing centralized lubrication technology to deliver the right lubricant at the right time in the right quantity to the right point of use. Centralized lubrication system feeds lubricant from a central source to the points on a machining system where friction occurs. All type of standard and specialized machine can run with centralized lubrication systems. Applications encompass equipment used in a wide range of industries, including automotive, machine tool, metals, printing, paper, food and beverage, mining, chemical, plastics, among many others .In centralized lubrication system the goal is to reduce friction and dissipate some of the heat generated by friction. With centralized lubrication, every bearing receives the proper lubricant in an exact amount to minimize wear and promote longer service life. In this paper machine-6 total 749 points are lubricated by this COL system. Here different type of oil flow rate is wanted for the lubrication points these are all easily done with COL .components of COL system and the specifications of the each component, working pressure of COL system different oil flow rates for friction points, performance enhancement were explained in detail
Keywords
Central oil lubrication , Paper plant.
Author Name Nizam Khan, Ravi K
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.072
Paper Title Foreign Object Damage Analysis of Aircraft Structural Materials
Abstract
Present day aircraft industry is focusing on weight reduction and fuel usage optimization which would ultimately lead to greener aero structures. The major challenge is the material selection by considering the design, operation and accidental scenarios. Composites have been considered along with advanced aluminum alloys for aero structures. One of the extreme operational scenarios is foreign object damage onto aircraft outer surfaces. The papers focus on the impact capability analysis of composites and aluminum alloys. Overall methodology of meeting the certification requirement is discussed using numerical tools. Finite Element of an aircraft windshield & surround structure for the bird-strike requirement according to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certification Specifications is discussed. Various methods of bird modeling and impact analysis is presented. Analysis is made based on the obtained numerical results. The Analysis Software used for the impact analysis were LS-Dyna and Ansys along with Hyper-mesh was used for pre-processing (Mesh). The geometry is developed using Catia. The objective of the paper is to bring out the simulated impact strength of the aircraft panels get an insight into the impact strength while meeting other criteria. Analysis high lights the need for considering extreme operation scenario like bird strike (Impact) while aiming for better material options for aircraft structures.
Keywords
Bird Strike, LSDYNA, FAA Aircraft.
Author Name Gunti Rajesh, Atluri V. Ratna Prasad
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.073
Paper Title Study on Effect of Chemical Treatments and Concentration of Jute on Tensile Properties of Long & Continuous Twisted Jute/Polypropylene Composites
Abstract
Thermoplastic based composites are now becoming popular due to their advantage in processing. On the other hand, jute is an annually regenerative, biodegradable, lignocellulosic bast fiber. The present study deals with evaluation of mechanical properties of continuous long twisted jute fiber reinforced polypropylene composites. The composite has been developed by injection molding process and hand-lay up technique. The effects of various chemical modifications on fiber like Mercerization (5%, 10% and 15% of NaOH), Neutralization and Bleaching with H2O2 have been studied. The composites were also prepared by adding different weight proportions of jute fiber bundles (2.5%, 5%, 7.5% & %10%). The highest tensile strength of 31.48MPa and maximum tensile modulus of 277.77MPa is obtained for 15% NaOH treated jute fiber reinforced composites with 10% weight fraction of fiber. There is a highest specific tensile strength of 0.0291 MPa/ kg/m3 obtained for 15% NaOH treated and bleached jute fiber reinforced polypropylene composite with 10% weight fraction of fiber. The tensile strength and tensile modulus are increased with increasing the NaOH percentage in treated jute fiber reinforced PP composite. Also there is an increase in the tensile properties with increase in the %weight fraction of fibers in the polypropylene matrix. It is also observed that there is an increase in specific tensile strength and specific tensile modulus with increasing the NaOH percentage in treating the fibers. These properties are further increased with increase in % weight fraction of fiber in the composite. The properties of untreated jute fiber reinforced PP composite are decreased compared to plain PP and treated jute fiber reinforced composites.
Keywords
Natural fiber, Jute fiber, Polypropylene, Composite, Bleaching, Tensile strength
Author Name D.V.S.Raju, Y.Vijaya kumar, V.Sreenivasulu, G.Nageshwara Rao
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.074
Paper Title Design of Centrifugal Pump for Pulp Handling in Paper Plant.
Abstract
This paper aimed at designing a pump which can handle under the pulp of 5% consistency pumping for the existing system (suction and delivery lines are there in position).For the design of pump the system resistance (total head) is calculated by considering head and capacity correction factor for 5% consistency of pulp. This factor is taken from data book. Power required and specific speed calculated by standard formulae. For pulp pumps above 3% consistency semi open impeller is preferable. Impeller vane angles, number of vanes, vane curvatures are designed as per standards
Keywords
Centrifugal pump, Paper plant
Author Name B. Ajitha, A. Divya, P. Sreedhara Reddy
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.075
Paper Title Impact of Ph on the Properties of Spherical Silver Nanoparticles Capped by PVA
Abstract
Spherical shaped silver nanoparticles have been synthesized through chemical reduction method using tri sodium citrate as reductant and PVA as surfactant. We have studied the pH influence on the properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Broadened XRD peaks confirmed the formation of small nano-sized silver particles with face centered cubic (FCC) structure. The average particle size of the silver nanoparticles decreased from 32 nm to 20 nm when the pH is increased from 6 to 10. The particle size decreased with increasing pH value was confirmed by both XRD and FESEM studies. FTIR measurements concluded that intact of PVA with silver nanoparticles
Keywords
Silver nanoparticles, XRD, FESEM.
Author Name Reddy Sreenivasulu, Ch.Srinivasa Rao
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.076
Paper Title Experimental Investigation on Influence of Nano Fluids in Drilling of Al 6061 Alloy using Grey Based- Taguchi Approach
Abstract
Drilling, a hole making process is especially important because it accounts for a large portion of overall machining operations. Amongst all machining operations, drilling using twist drill is most commonly applied method for generating holes for riveting and fastening of structural assemblies.This paper deals with multi performance characteristics in drilling of Aluminum 6061 alloy with water based Nano fluid (small amount of Al2O3 Nano particles in water) using Grey based – Taguchi method. Five parameters namely cutting speed, feed rate, point angle, clearance angle and variable volume fraction of Al2O3 Nanoparticles in water were identified and their ranges for the present investigation were determined from preliminary experiments. Thrust force and surface roughness are recorded using well calibrated equipments at 3 levels with L27 orthogonal array as per Taguchi experimental plan. Optimal combination of process parameters was obtained to minimize the recorded responses. In the case where experiments are ambiguous or when the experimental method cannot be carried out exactly, grey analysis helps to compensate for the shortcoming in statistical regression. Grey based – Taguchi method is an effective tool for analyzing the relationship between sequences with less data and can analyze many factors that can overcome the disadvantages of statistical method.
Keywords
Drilling, Nano fluids, Orthogonal Array, Taguchi-Grey relational analysis
Author Name Satish M. Silaskar, Akash S.Bage, Milind S.Deotale
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.078
Paper Title Analysis and Optimization of Ball Valve for Reengineering
Abstract
With the change economic scenario, the various factors are affecting the growth and survival of industry in India due to customer expectation and changes industrial processes/product were incapable of meeting today’s stringent customer demand for quality, reliability, cost, and timeliness. “Reengineering is the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical, contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed”. Due todimension of an existing valve body for reduction in weight. Also study of other parts manufacturing process method is require to develop by studying the existing processes for identifying the reengineering issue for improvement by quality, cost and design Comparing the result of analysis and optimize it with.In this paper consists of a case study conducted at Ball Valve manufacturing industry, Thane, an attempt is made in existing products technical specification, weight, cost and quality.increasing global and competitive environment reengineering being actively pursued by industries modeling and analysis of existing valve body. principal, working and function of valve. After studying the existing system and comparing with some theoretical We developed a Finite Element Model using computer aided design and engineering software (Pro/ENGINEER).Then the finite element analysis, simulation software (ANSYS/FEM) is use for determine to finalization of critical
Keywords
Reengineering, Modeling , Analysis, Optimization
Author Name Chittaranjan Das.V, Srinivas. C
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.079
Paper Title Evaluation of Metal Strip-Layout Selectionusing AHP and TOPSIS Method
Abstract
Stamping dies are used to produce very large numbers of identical parts from sheet metal. Due to the high volumes of parts produced, even small inefficiencies in material utilization per part can lead to very large amounts of wasted material over a die's life . Strip-layout design is an important step in the planning stage of sheet metal work on metal stamping. It is an experience-driven activity and the quality of strip-layout is highly dependent on the knowledge and skill of die designers. However, due to the complexity in strip-layout, it is impossible to judge the efficient layout manually by the designer. This paper presents a strip-layout selection procedure pertaining to metal die stamping work in complex layout situations. The procedure is based on a combined TOPSIS and AHP method. The proposed Strip layout index helps to evaluate and rank of any given set of strip-layout alternatives for a given engineering design. The procedure is illustrated by means of an example
Keywords
Metal stamping layout; TOPSIS; AHP
Author Name Chittaranjan Das, V., Devaraj, Ch.
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.080
Paper Title Machinability Index Evaluation using AHP and PROMTHEE Method
Abstract
The manufacturing sector frequently face the problem of assessing a wide range of alternative options, and selecting one based on a set of conflicting criteria.This paper presents a methodology to evaluate the machinability of work materials for a given machining operation using Preference Ranking Organisation Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE).The method is improved in the present work by integrating with analytic hierarchy process AHP. A universal machinability index is proposed that evaluates and ranks work materials for a given machining operation. The index is obtained from a universal machinability junction, obtained from the universal machinability attributes. The procedure is illustrated by means of an example.
Keywords
Machinability, PROMTHEE, AHP.
Author Name P.Divakara Rao, P.Ravikanth Raju, V.Sreenivasulu, P.Narasimha Reddy
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.081
Paper Title Design of Variable Valve Actuation in I.C.Engine
Abstract
These major issues are putting pressure on automakers to develop new technologies to increase the fuel economy and decrease the emissions while maintaining or improving the engine’s performance. Several new technologies have resulted. All of these technologies accomplish these goals by increasing the efficiency of an engine. As a whole these technologies are called variable valve actuation. These technologies achieve a higher efficiency by reducing the constants of the engine. However, the added variability increases the time to calibrate an engine. To address this, more testing is being performed using engine simulations instead of physical testing. This thesis focuses on how to create an engine model and how engine simulation can be used to optimize such an engine. In addition the benefits of a particular variable valve actuation technology, cam phasing, will be explored
Keywords
Variable valve actuation, Torque curve comparison, Optimum timing and lift chart
Author Name Ananda.G.K, Ramesha .H
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.082
Paper Title Study the Thermal Characteristics of LM13/ MgO Composites
Abstract
The demand of today’s and future aluminium alloys are best suitable materials in engineering applications. These needs for new materials able to match increasingly stringent engineering requirements have led to the development of Metal Matrix Composites for automotive applications. Al based MMC’s are having some excellent properties such as high hardness, high strength & high thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. Other characteristics are low coefficient of thermal expansion & wear resistances. In the present investigation, the effects of thermal conductivity of LM13/MgOp MMC’s. The as-cast LM13 alloy and its composites were fabricated using stir-casting method by varying the reinforcement content from 2 wt.% to 10 wt.% in steps of 2.The specimens were prepared as per ASTME standards & compare the results Thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. These composites may be the alternate materials for aero-plane components, automobile parts like piston rod, connecting rod & cylinder head
Keywords
LM13-Light Metals, MgOP-Magnesium oxide particulate, MMCs- Metal Matrix Composite
Author Name M. Venkateswarlu, B. RajiniKanth
PDF Download PDF
DOI :http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.083
Paper Title Magneto Rheological properties of Cobalt ferrite based MR fluids
Abstract
Magneto Rheological fluids are made of soft magnetic particles dispersed in a carrier fluid. Here cobalt ferrite based magneto rheological fluids were made from the nanopowders of cobalt ferrite obtained from the simple wet chemical synthesis from the metal salts dispersed in the Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP). The nanoparticle Cobalt ferrite was heat treated at 600C for five and half hours in a furnace. The sample was characterized by using X- ray Diffraction(XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy(SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX). Cobalt ferrite which is mixed with different weight percent solutions of PVP to make the Magneto Rheological fluid samples. These samples were characterized by the Rheometere in both oscillatory, rotational measurement conditions. The variation in viscosity with respect to the magnetic field, storage and loss modulus and damping of the samples were measured and presented in this paper.
Keywords
Magneto rheological Fluid, Cobalt Ferrite, Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone, Viscosity, Storage Modulus, loss Modulus and Damping
Author Name V.Vinod Kumar, A.Shirisha
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.084
Paper Title Geometrical Accuracy of Parts Produced by Rapid Prototyping Technique (Sls)
Abstract
The present work has been carried out to identify various geometrical characteristics of the parts produced by Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) technique using different process parameters like part built orientation and sintering temperature. A geometrical bench mark part with different shapes and features is produced by SLS process with polyamide powder material. The bench mark part is inspected using CMM to know the geometric errors like roundness, perpendicularity, parallelism, concentricity etc. Effect of build orientation and sintering temperature on various errors has been studied and reasons are analyzed. Suitable process parameters are suggested to produce the parts with better geometrical accuracy and these are very much useful in industrial applications.
Keywords
Build orientation, Geometric accuracy, Sintering temperature
Author Name V.Kukkala, S.K.Sahoo
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.085
Paper Title Finite Element Analysis of Ultrasonic Vibratory tool and Experimental Study In Ultrasonic Vibration-assisted Turning (UVT)
Abstract
In the modern day’s applications of hard materials in different industries, like aero-technical, defense and petrochemicals sectors etc. have been increased remarkably. The machining of these hard materials is very difficult in conventional turning process. Ultrasonic assisted turning is a suitable and advanced process for machining hard and brittle material because of its intermittent cutting mechanism. In the present work, Designed the experimental set-up and Experimental study have been carried out to find the difference between ultrasonic-assisted and conventional turning at different cutting condition taking Stainless steel (SS-304) (a general purpose engineering material) as a work piece material. FEA has been used for more than 40 years to various structural, thermal and acoustic problems. In this present problem ANSYS® software package is used to analyze dynamic analysis of ultrasonic vibratory tool. Both modal and harmonic analysis of UVT are carried out to calculate the natural frequency and amplitude of tool.
Keywords
CT, UAT, UVT, Triangular rule
Author Name S V Ranganayakulu, R.Gowtham, M.Premkumar
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.086
Paper Title Why Multi shot should be conducted for Radiography Examination..?
Abstract
Ultrasonic pulse echo method is approved for planar defect in the weld joint against radiography examination. The most important point in this evaluation is planar defects are effectively traced in radiography. Due to its excellent weldability, carbon steel is suitable for submerged arc welding. Ultrasonic and Radiography inspection is conducted for weld joint. During radiography method, planar defect (Lack of fusion) is detected and as verification ultrasonic pulse-echo method is also conducted to grasp planar defect. Primarily a demerit in radiography is shown as plus point in ultrasonic method. Secondarily, Lack of fusion is very common type of defect in weld defects. Lack of fusion is not notice as weld defect, as they are characterized as planar defect. As a final point, lack of fusion is not noticed by radiography examination, and may probably determine by ultrasonic method. The merits of Ultrasonic evaluation over X-ray Radiography inspection are discussed in these studies.
Keywords
Planar defect, X-ray radiography, Ultrasonic pulse-echo technique
Author Name T.Sunil Kumar, K.Durga Rao, M.M.M.Sarcar, B.S.K.S.Rao
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.087
Paper Title Free Vibration Analysis of a Cracked Composite Beam
Abstract
The issue of crack detection and diagnosis has gained wide spread industrial interest. Identification of crack depths and their location from reference point are the standard methods in performance monitoring of the composite beam. The present work introduces an attempt to study the variations in the Eigen-nature of cracked composite beam at different crack depths and locations. The composite beam with edge crack is considered in the paper. The presence of crack changes the physical characteristics of a structure which in turn alter its dynamic response characteristics. The frequency, amplitude and acceleration of cracked and uncracked beam response was determined experimentally. Analysis is carried out in both time and frequency domains, which is aimed to identify the dynamic response associated with the existence of crack
Keywords
Freevibration, Timedomain, Frequency domain, Crack.
Author Name Venugopal.T, VinothKumar.B, Pankaj Kumar Sharma
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.088
Paper Title Analysis of Mechanical properties and Micro structure formation in Al 6082 alloy during ECAP process
Abstract
The possibility of including a new methods into classical technologies is one of the reasons which for writing this paper. ECAP is unique because significant cold work can be accomplished without reduction in the cross sectional area of the deformed work piece. In conventional deformation processes like rolling, forging, extrusion, and drawing, strain is introduced by reduction in the cross sectional area. ECAP produces significant deformation strain without reducing the cross sectional area. This is accomplished by extruding the work piece around a corner. For example, a circular cross section rod of metal is forced through a channel with a 90 degree angle. The cross section of the channel is equal on entry and exit. The complex deformation of the metal as it flows around the corner produces very high strain. Because the cross section remains the same, a work piece can be extruded multiple times with each pass introducing additional strain. This paper describes about micro structural development in Aluminum during ECAP process. Also, Mechanical properties are improved by Severe Plastic Deformation (SPD) process such as Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP). This procedure makes it possible to obtain after 4 passes the grain size of approx. 2µm. Achieved quality level of mechanical properties is a function of no. of passes as well as used technological route
Keywords
ECAP; processing route; Ultrafine grain; Aluminum Alloy.
Author Name Seyed Ebrahim Vahdat, Ali Pournaghi,
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.007
Paper Title Optimization of Bone Implant Selection with Price Analysis
Abstract
This paper introduces a mathematical method based on fuzzy logic which is used in designing of bone implant. Five sets of criteria are defined as follow: total corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, adherence, technical specs and price. Each of these criterions is divided into its subsets. Then membership functions of sets are defined. In continuation the satisfactory degree is calculated. Finally, biomaterial favorability is determined and the effect of price on sensitivity analysis is analyzed. Twelve common metallic biomaterials are used in the database. These methods show the satisfactory value for bone implant as a continuous value ranging from zero to one. Therefore, biomaterial designer can compare a new material to the database systematically and he/she can determine restricted parameters to increase the performance of bone implant. The results show; the model is sensitive. In addition; price is an effective parameter in the selection of implants and it leads to customer satisfaction
Keywords
Biomaterial Characterization; Fuzzy Logic
Author Name Ruchi Deshmukh, Rochish Thaokar, Anurag Mehra
PDF Download PDF
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2013.02.019
Paper Title Ionic Liquid Assisted Synthesis and Crystal Habit Control of Cobalt Accicular Nanoparticles
Abstract
We suggest a new method to synthesize well dispersed Cobalt (Co) acicular nanoparticles in water by a room temperature chemical reduction route. HRTEM images show that nanoparticles are needle shaped (acicular) with an average aspect ratio (length/diameter) between 3 and 13 when stabilizing agent tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAOH) is used to stabilize the particles. The aspect ratio depends upon precursor concentration, type of stabilization agent Tetra - (methyl, ethyl butyl) ammonium hydroxide added and inherent magnetic moment of the particles. Systematic experiments on cobalt suggest a plausible mechanism that involves oriented aggregation of initially formed spherical nanoparticles resulting in cobalt needles when TMAOH is used as structure directing agent. These needles grow normal to (100) plane that is assisted by cooperative role of cation TMA+ and anion OH-. The method is easily extended to nickel and iron oxide and synthesis of well formed acicular nanoparticles in these systems is demonstrated.
Keywords
Co-needles, Chemical reduction, Ionic liquid, Shape anisotropy, Saturation magnetization.