Papers Posted on - Mar / 2012


Author Name Z. Pedzich z
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Paper Title Microstructure evolution of silicone rubber-based composites during ceramization at different condit
Abstract
The work describes the microstructural changes proceed during ceramization of silicone rubber-based composites during ceramization at different conditions. Ceramization is a phenomenon which assures compactness of polymer-based composites in the case of its thermal degradation caused by open fire or exposition on the high temperature. Polymer-based materials used as a wire covers contain a certain amount of mineral additives. A type, the volume, the grain size distribution of these additives are decisive for shaping of microstructure of ceramized body. Moreover, ceramization condition can strongly influenced microstructure. The total porosity, the open porosity and the pore size distribution evolve with degradation temperature changes. In presented study the microstructure of ceramized composites containing various mineral fillers is presented. The ceramization process was conducted in different conditions: rapid burning on the open flame at temperature ~1050°C and relatively slow degradation at high temperatures (600, 800 and 1050°C) in electrical furnace.
Keywords
: composites, silicone rubber, mineral fillers, ceramization
Author Name Apurv Kumar, dr
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Paper Title NUMERICAL STUDY OF HYDRODYNAMICS UNDER VACUUM CONDITIONS IN BUBBLING FLUIDISED BEDS
Abstract
Understanding hydrodynamics of fluidised beds is important from point of view of prediction of the heat and mass transfer characteristics. The particle mixing, bubble formation, formation of slugs etc, affect the heat and mass transfer processes directly. An important parameter that affects the hydrodynamics of fluidised beds is the operating pressure. Fluidised beds have been operated in a wide pressure ranges, from sub-atmospheric to atmospheric to high pressures. The present work presents some aspects of hydrodynamics of fluidised bed operated under vacuum conditions as predicted by the numerical solution. A commercial software FLUENT is used to solve the multiphase problem of bubbling gas-solid fluidisation under vacuum conditions incorporating a new drag model valid under vacuum condition. It is seen under vacuum conditions that the amount of supply of air is reduced significantly to produce similar fluidisation characteristics as observed under atmospheric conditions. Results of velocity distributions for various pressures are also presented.
Keywords
Bubbling fluidisation, CFD, vacuum, drag model
Author Name J. Dul dr
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Paper Title Mechanical properties of silicone-based composites destined for wire covers
Abstract
The work collects results of investigation on the mechanical properties of silicone rubber-based composites dedicated for the cable industry. Such materials are composites containing various mineral fillers, like mica, wollastonite, aluminum hydroxide, kaolin, quartz or glassy phases of different composition. The presence of mentioned ceramic phases could assure the proper behavior of composite material subjected to high temperature or flame. At such conditions investigated composites create stiff and coherent layer preventing electrical circuit from short-circuit phenomenon. Incorporation of distinct amounts of ceramic phases influences rheology of polymer mixes. In presented study the influence of mineral part of composition on viscoelastic properties of composite mixes was investigated. These properties are decisive for the proper run of the cable forming process. Moreover, the presence of ceramic phases strongly influences mechanical properties of vulcanized composites. The main properties such strength, elongation were measured in the dependence on ready material composition.
Keywords
composites, silicone rubber, mineral fillers, ceramization
Author Name M. Swathi m
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Paper Title Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction Analysis and Atomistic Monte Carlo Simulations of waste plastics in c
Abstract
The possibility of using waste plastics as a carbonaceous resource in steel processing has been recent interest. Plastics are substitute for some of the coal, coke and oil that is used for reduction of the iron ore and for heating. The plastics used for this are Bakelite, PET, carbon fibres and carbon composites. The industry of steel making is very huge, if waste plastics substituted in place of carbonaceous materials like coal, coke or graphite the new revolution in steel making can be achieved. The aim of the project is to determine the structure of the plastics when mixed in coke in different proportions and also to understand the atomic level interactions of carbon in iron melt using Monte Carlo simulations. Understanding of this phenomenon contributes in understanding the carbon dissolution in molten iron.
Keywords
carbon dissolution,Plastic wastage
Author Name D. M. Bielinski Dr
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Paper Title Ceramizable silicone rubber-based composites
Abstract
The work reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of ceramizable silicone rubber-based composites used in cable industry. Phenomenon of ceramization is based on preventing volatiles of polymer thermal decomposition from evacuation by creation of ceramic layer in composite surface. Usually, the layer is composed of mineral filer particles, connected by fluxing agent. The ceramic barrier has to characterize itself by micro-porous structure: - protecting copper wire inside the cable from heat transfer leading to melting, and - exhibiting good mechanical strength, assuring integrity of electrical circuit. Subject literature provides information on the application of calcium- or aluminium-based mineral fillers, combined with fluxing systems, to fill silicone rubber - silica compounds. In this study various mineral fillers, together with boron oxide as a fluxing agent, have been tested. Acidic character of B2O3, inhibiting peroxide curing of silicone rubber, was compensated by admixing of MgO and its good dispersion in the composite matrix, was obtained by co-grinding of the minerals, enabling the decrease of their particle size. The best ceramic phase, created on fire, was found for composites filled with wollastonite or mica. They represent the lowest mass loss and the stable porosity of ceramic phase up to the highest temperatures tested.
Keywords
composites, silicone rubber, mineral fillers, ceramization
Author Name kondaiah p
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Paper Title MAGNETO-ELECTRO-ELASTIC BEAM UNDER THERMAL ENVIRONMENT
Abstract
Smart continuum made of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) material having piezoelectric phase and piezomagnetic phase shows the coupling between mechanical, electrical and magnetic fields under thermal environment. Kumaravel et al (2007) has presented the steady state analysis of a MEE strip under thermal environment on two dimentional rectangular element without considering pyroelectric and pyromagnetic coupling effects due to lack of pyroelectric pyromagnetic properties. Recently Challagulla and Georgiades (2011) have presented product properties like pyroelectric and pyromagnetic in micromechanical analysis of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic smart composite by using asymptotic homogenization method. The main aim of this paper is to study the influence of pyroelectric and pyromagnetic on thermal deflection, electric potential, magnetic potential, thermal stresses, electric displacement and magnetic flux density. To study this intelligent class of material characterization under thermal environment, coupled magneto-electro-elastic (smart) beam is investigated under constant temperature using finite element procedures to accommodate changes in environment. The finite element beam is modeled using eight node 3D brick element with five nodal degrees of freedom viz. thermal displacements in the x, y and z directions and electric and magnetic potentials. The study has being carried out for clamped-clamped boundary condition.
Keywords
magneto-electro-elastic, pyroelectric, pyromagnetic, finite element
Author Name Sundararaman d
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Paper Title Investigation of tribological properties of functionally graded as-cast MMC
Abstract
An attempt is made in this work to investigate the tribological properties for the functionally graded metal matrix composite (MMC) consists of aluminium alloy (A356) and Silicon Carbide (SiC) prepared using centrifugal casting. The Silicon Carbide (SiC) is reinforced in the form of particulate with an average particle size of 23 µm in the MMC with 15% volume fraction. The tribological properties of the composite are planned to study using pin-on-disk wear test apparatus at three different regions in the prepared sample (inner, middle and outer). The disk material is En 24 steel. The input process parameters considered are load, sliding speed and temperature. Experiments are planned to conduct as per design of experiments (DoE) approach using L9 orthogonal array. The output parameters considered are wear resistance, surface hardness and coefficient of friction. Based on the results, confirmation experiments are also planned. In addition to the above, the mechanical properties of the MMC such as tensile strength, compression strength and hardness will be carried out and compared with that of unreinforced A356. The results obtained from this study will be useful to the designers for selecting the appropriate regions in the materials for various applications such as automotive, defense, etc.
Keywords
metal matrix composite; functionally graded composites; pin-on-disk; wear resistance, surface hardness and coefficient of friction
Author Name suresh r
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Paper Title Force Prediction Model of Multilayer Coated Carbide Tool in Hard Turning of AISI 4340 Steel Using Re
Abstract
In the present study, an attempt has been made to investigate the effect of cutting parameters on machining forces in finish hard turning of AISI 4340 steel using multi layer carbide tool. The machining experiments were performed based on standard Response Surface Methodology (RSM) called Central Composite Design (CCD). The mathematical model of each forces have been developed using second order regression analysis. The adequacy of the models and influence of each operating factors have been carried out based on Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques. It can be concluded from the present study that cutting speed and depth of cut have predominant effect on feed force whereas feed and depth of cut are the two most influencing factors for thrust force determination. But, in case of cutting force modeling, all the cutting parameters like feed rate, depth of cut and cutting speed were significant effect. It is important to note that cutting force is directly affected by cutting tool material. The key parameters and their effects on forces have also been presented in graphical contours which may help for choosing operating parameter preciously.
Keywords
Hard turning, Coated carbide tool, Cutting forces, Response Surface Methodology (RSM), Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
Author Name Venkateswarlu g
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Paper Title Effect of Traverse Speed on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction stir processed Mg
Abstract
The automobile industry expresses more interest in magnesium alloys and especially magnesium wrought materials for automotive structural applications based on the combination of high specific strength properties with low density. The main drawback of Magnesium is its poor formability at room temperature because of lack of active slip systems due to hcp structure .However the grain refinement improves its ductility, fatigue and creep properties. The hexagonal structure of magnesium requires elevated forming temperatures to activate more slips and allow better mechanical properties. The processing methods; rolling, warm forming, ECAP etc are used to activate slip systems that may result in improved properties. The friction stir processing has unique features such as generation of low amount of heat ,extensive plastic flow of material, production of very fine grain size in stirred region, healing of flaws and casting porosity ,mechanical mixing of the surface and sub surface layers. It provides severe strain during deformation to refine the grains results in improving mechanical properties. The main objective of the present work is to study the effect of friction stir processing on microstructure and mechanical prosperities (yield strength, tensile strength, elongation, hardness and impact energy) of Mg AZ 31B alloy at different traverse speed rates.
Keywords
: Friction stir processing, Traverse speed, Microstructure
Author Name balaji d
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Paper Title Study on the Comparative performance of TiN coated with Uncoated rollers in Burnishing Operation
Abstract
: During recent years , considerable attention is being paid to the post- machining metal finishing operations Burnishing process is the one which improves the surface characteristics by plastic deformation of the surface layers. Since all machined surfaces consist of a series of peaks and valleys of irregular height and spacing, the plastic deformation created by roller burnishing is a displacement of the material in the peaks which cold flows under pressure into the valleys This results in a much improved finish with a tough, hardened and wear and corrosion resistant surface. The burnishing process is influenced by many operating parameters like burnishing speed ,force,,feed,and number of passes etc. Sputtering is a physical vapor deposition process whereby atoms in a solid target material are rejected into the gaseous phase due to bombardment of the material by energetic ions. Sputtering is largely driven by momentum exchange between the ions and atoms in the materials, due to collisions. Other things the sputter yield depends on are the energy of atoms in the solids. The impact of an atom or ion on a surface produces sputtering from the surfaces as a result of the momentum transfer from the in-coming particle. Unlike many other vapor phase techniques there is no melting of the material. Titatinium Nitride (TiN) is the most common PVD hard coating material/layer in use today. Titanium Nitride coatings having many advantages in metal cutting like high wear resistance, maintaining sharp edges or corners, prevent galling, seizing or cold –welding, provides an attractive metallic gold color, safe, for surgical devices and food processing, decreases friction ,resists corrosion, with stand high temperatures etc. The present work involves the study of the performance of sputter deposited TiN coated rollers in roller burnishing process and with following steps: • Fabrication of a new roller burnishing tool holder • Fabrication of experimental set up rotating the rollers at different speeds in side vacuum chamber • Deposition of TiN coatings on burnishing roller using sputtering process and studied their characteristics • Study the comparative performance of the coated and uncoated rollers in burnishing process • Study on the influence of machining parameters in burnishing process on the performance of coated burnishing rollers Studied the performance of the TiN coated rollers is superior to uncoated rollers in burnishing operation. The burnishing speed, feed, depth of cut and number of passes are the influencing parameters on the burnishing operation. The performance of the coated rollers and uncoated is studied in this work by varying parameters such as speed, feed, burnishing force and numbers of passes to understand their role individually and then the results are presented and analyzed. .
Keywords
. Burnishing Process; B. Sputtering; C. Physical Vapor Deposition
Author Name Rajesh Kumar b
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Paper Title Influence of Sputtering power on Optical Properties of Nanostructured Zinc Aluminum Oxide Thin films
Abstract
Zinc Aluminum Oxide films have many industrial applications, such as in the fabrication of thin film solar cells, smart windows, silicon hetero-junction solar cells and flat panel displays due to their low conductivity, high transparency and wide band-gap. In the present work Zinc Aluminum Oxide thin films have been deposited on glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering technique at different sputtering powers of Al varied from 85W- 125W kept the other parameters such as the oxygen percentage in argon, the working pressure, the substrate temperature and deposition time unchanged. The deposition rate of Al varied with the power setting. Optical constants such as absorption coefficient (α), extinction coefficient (k), optical band gap (Eg) and Urbach’s energy (EU) are evaluated from the optical transmission spectra. Optical absorption edge of nanostructured Zinc Aluminum Oxide thin films has a significant blue shift to the region of higher photon energy. The optical band gap of nanostructured Zinc Aluminum Oxide thin films is found to be in the range of 3.34-3.6eV. The change in optical band gap can be explained in terms of Burstein-Moss band gap widening and band gap narrowing due to the electron-electron and electron-impurity scattering.
Keywords
: DC reactive magnetron sputtering, Zinc Aluminum Oxide thin films, Optical properties
Author Name mer kks
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Paper Title The Effect of Particle Shape on the Mechanical Properties of Particle Reinforced Metal Matrix Compos
Abstract
The shape, size and orientation of particles are important in determining the deformation behaviour of particle reinforced MMCs. The elastic behaviour may be understood in terms of bounds given by the rule of mixture and the inverse rule of mixture corresponding to iso-stress and iso-strain conditions respectively. The rule of mixture which gives the upper bounds for modules of elasticity is originally developed for determining the modulus of elasticity for fiber reinforced composites with the fibers oriented along the loading direction. The inverse rule of mixture which gives the lower bounds for the modulus of elasticity is for determining the modulus of elasticity for the fiber reinforced composites with fibers oriented transverse to the loading direction. Thus it may be said that the particles elongated in the direction of loading will attribute to higher values of modulus of elasticity, while the particle elongated transverse to the direction of loading will attribute to lower values of modulus of elasticity in comparison to that in isotropic composites reinforced by spherical particles with unit aspect ratio. Thus, it is important to establish the effect of shape, orientation and aspect ratio of particles on the deformation behaviour of composites. In the present work, MMCs have been modelled with the help of finite element modelling technique where particles are distributed randomly in a matrix in order to get a more realistic model compared to those based on unit cell. The effect of different random distribution of particles on the mechanical properties of the composites at the global as well as the local scale has also been investigated. The properties of the uniform composites with different particle volume fractions and with different shapes and orientations of particles have been investigated within the framework of the present model in the context of elastic as well as non-linear deformation behaviour in terms of stress-strain behaviour under uniaxial loading. The composites are assumed to consist of elastically deforming particles reinforced in elastic-perfectly plastic matrix.
Keywords
Metal Matrix Composites, Modelling, Modulus of Elasticity, Rule of Mixture
Author Name Rajesh s
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Paper Title Comparative study on mechanical properties of SiC and Graphite reinforced aluminum MMCs
Abstract
For advanced aerospace applications aluminum metal matrix composites (MMCs) are increasingly attractive as their properties can be enhanced through the addition of selected reinforcements. Because of their good specific strength and specific stiffness at room or elevated temperatures particulate reinforced MMCs have recently found special interest. It is well known that the elastic properties of metal matrix composites are strongly influenced by micro structural parameters of the reinforcement such as shape, size, orientation, distribution and volume fraction. The objective of this paper is to carry out a study of effect of SiC and graphite reinforcement on the mechanical properties of aluminum metal matrix particulate composite. The percentage of reinforcing particulates in the MMC is varied from 0% to 5 % by weight with an increment of 1.25 %. The liquid metallurgy method is employed to fabricate the composites, in which the reinforcements are poured into the vortex created by stirring the molten metal. The composites so produced are subjected to a series of mechanical tests. From the study, it was found that increasing the SiC content within the aluminum matrix results in significant increase in the UTS, hardness and Young's modulus, but a decrease in the ductility. It is also found that increasing the graphite content within the aluminum matrix also leads to increase in the UTS, Young's modulus and ductility, but a decrease in the hardness. Micrographs of the cast metal matrix were taken in order to study the dispersion of reinforcements in the matrix.
Keywords
Aluminum MMCs, characterization, stir casting, SiC, graphite
Author Name mohanta dk
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Paper Title Prediction of Surface Roughness in Turning of Low Carbon Steel with Coated and Uncoated Inserts
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This paper presents minimization of surface roughness of AISI 1020 steel work piece using cutting tools ISO P30 uncoated and TiN-TiCN-Al2O3-ZrCN multilayer coated cemented carbide. Effect of cutting velocity, feed rate and depth of cut, each at three levels, is studied on the surface roughness. Taguchi’s design of experiment is used to find the optimum factor levels. It is found that the feed rate has significant effect in producing lower surface roughness followed by speed. The depth of cut has lesser role on surface roughness. The result of Taguchi method shows that cutting velocity of 90 m/min, feed rate of 0.14 mm/rev and depth of cut of 0.4mm should be maintained as optimal parameter settings. Since experimentation takes high amount of efforts, cost and time, it is prudent to propose a simple but valid model to predict the response. Therefore, a fuzzy inference system, which works on experience of the modeler and shop floor managers, has been proposed in this work. The advantage of using fuzzy inference system lies in the fact that it can handle uncertainty and fuzziness involved during experimentation effectively. The average absolute error is found to be 0.59 and 0.44 for uncoated and coated inserts respectively.
Keywords
Surface roughness; Dry machining; Carbide insert; Taguchi method; Fuzzy inference system
Author Name Bandyopadhyay k
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Paper Title Effect of Weld-Zone on Formability of Laser Welded Dual Phase Steel Sheets
Abstract
Laser welding of advanced high strength steels (AHSSs) is drawing more attention of automotive industries because of its potential in weight reduction, cost reduction and safety improvements. Dual phase (DP) steels is one type of AHSS endowing with high strength and moderate formability due to its multiphase ferrite-martensite microstructure. In the present study, laser welding was carried out on two different grades of DP steels namely, DP980 and DP600 by a 2kW fibre laser set up at a scan speed of 1000mm/min. Weld quality was assessed with the help of microstructure, micro-hardness and transverse tensile tests. Formability of parent metals and laser welded blanks was accessed in terms of dome height in a laboratory scale Erichsen cupping test set up. It was observed that hardness of the fusion zone has increased compared to that of parent metals. However, 29% reduction in hardness was observed at the outer heat affected zone (HAZ) of DP980 steel weldments. Fracture occurred away from the fusion zone in DP600 transverse welded tensile samples, where as in the outer HAZ in the DP980 welded samples. It was observed from the Erichsen cupping test that formability of both the laser welded blank was lower than that of corresponding parent metal but reduction in dome height was more in the case of laser welded DP980 blanks.
Keywords
DP steel, laser welding, formability
Author Name kiran d
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Paper Title Determination of the Fundamental Frequency of Perforated Plate with Rectangular Perforation Pattern
Abstract
This paper aims at determining the fundamental frequency of rectangular perforated plate with rectangular perforation pattern of circular holes. Galerkin method is used for the solution of this problem .Perforated plate is considered as plate with uniformly distributed mass and holes are considered as concentrated negative masses. The deflected surface of the plate is approximated by the cosine series which satisfies the boundary conditions .Finite Element Method (FEM) modal analysis is carried out to validate the results of the proposed approach.
Keywords
vibration of plates, Galerkin method, FEM, perforated plate
Author Name sahoo dp
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Paper Title Design Improvement in Conventional Paver Making Plant for Producing Fly Ash Based Paver Blocks Usin
Abstract
Geopolymers are new class of materials formed due to reaction between alumino silicates and oxides in alkaline medium, charaterised by network of inorganic molecules. It has got potential utilization in construction industry. Geopolymers relies on minimally processed natural material or industrial byproducts. These are emerging as the construction material of new millennium. This process is becoming popular because of its easy processing, energy efficient, ecofriendly nature and it mostly utilize industrial wastes like fly ash, LD slag, GBFS etc. Fly ash is widely used material in geopolymerization because of its abundance availability, good workability and development of excellent mechanical properties like high CCS, abrasion resistance, flexural strength etc in final product. Geopolymers has got ancient roots as this technology was used in construction of Pyramid. In modern era though geopolymer started in early 80’s, till now it is not being popularly used for commercial production especially in India. We at NML has studied the process and modified the plant utilized for preparation of paver block by conventional method, to make it suitable for preparation of geopolymer products. As alkali is the main reagent for the geopolymeric reaction, we have modified the system to be suitable for work in alkali environment. We have modified mixer machine with alkali resistant liners, mould material of press has been changed, installed specially designed liquid dosing system for addition of alkali in mix, in place of normal hydraulic press we go for vibro-hydraulic press with arrangement to have various combination of pressure and vibrations , modified feeder unit of press to handle geopolymer mix, one ball mill is added in the circuit for generation of GBFS fines.
Keywords
: Geopolymer, Alkali, Vibro-Hydraulic, Ball Mill, Liquid dosing System, Fly Ash, GBFS, LD slag,CCS
Author Name singh rk
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Paper Title Numerical Modeling of Transmission and Reflection of Lamb Waves in Delaminated Composite Structure
Abstract
The paper deals with the numerical modeling of propagation and interaction of ultrasonic Lamb waves in delaminated composites. Using guided waves, defects in the path of propagation in plate-like structures can be located, if details like Time-of-Flight (ToF), attenuation, mode conversion, power coefficients etc. are known. The interaction of the fundamental anti-symmetric Lamb mode (Ao) with a structural discontinuity (semi-infinite delamination) in a Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) composite beam was studied through numerical simulations carried using Finite Element Method (FEM). When Ao mode interacts with the front edge of a delamination, the reflection and transmission into the sub-laminates takes place. Also at the same time the fundamental symmetric Lamb mode (So) is generated. The incident Ao and generated So modes propagate in the sub-laminates as AoAo and AoSo modes. The arrival times of AoAo and AoSo modes at receiving points were calculated analytically and compared with those obtained from numerical simulations. Further, Lamb wave reflection and transmission in composite laminates containing a semi-infinite delamination is studied. Power transmission coefficients of various Lamb modes (AoAo and AoSo) propagating in the top and bottom sub-laminates were estimated through numerical simulations. The paper highlights the variation in transmission coefficients with respect to frequency and location of interface of delamination across the thickness of laminate.
Keywords
: Lamb wave, laminated composites, semi-infinite delamination, Finite Element Analysis, Numerical Modeling
Author Name ratna raju
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Paper Title An experimental setup for testing perforated plate heat exchangers at cryogenic temperatures
Abstract
Perforated plate heat exchangers (PPHEs) are made of a stack of alternately arranged high thermal conductivity perforated plates and low thermal conductivity insulating spacers. Because of the complex geometry and heat transfer mechanism, conventional equations are not applicable for performance prediction of PPHEs. An experimental setup has been designed and developed for studying thermal performance of a perforated plate heat exchanger. The experimental setup consists of a helium compressor, vacuum vessel, perforated plate heat exchanger, liquid nitrogen bath, filter, vacuum pump, flow regulating valve, flow meter, pressure gauge, resistance temperature detector (PT-100) and data acquisition system. Most of the components are suspended from the top flange of a stainless steel vacuum vessel. The vessel is continuously evacuated by a vacuum pump which maintains a pressure below 10-6 Torr. Helium gas at a pressure of 10 bar passes through one of the fluid channels of the heat exchanger. The outlet gas is cooled by using liquid nitrogen in a liquid nitrogen bath. Then the cold gas is passed through the other channel of the heat exchanger in counter flow manner. Effectiveness of the heat exchanger is calculated from the measured temperatures at the inlet and outlet points of the heat exchanger. Flow friction studies are conducted by measuring the pressure drop in each channel across the heat exchanger. Several heat exchangers have been tested for their performance under varying mass flow rate conditions. Some of the results are presented in the paper.
Keywords
Perforated plate heat exchanger, Heat transfer and flow friction studies
Author Name vijayan n
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Paper Title Crystal Growth and third order nonlinear optical measurements of some organic and semiorganic materi
Abstract
Organic and semiorganic nonlinear optical materials are getting attention in the area of fibre optic communication, optical signal processing, optical data storage and frequency doubling applications. The main advantage of this materials is that the synthesis and growth is very economical in comparison with the inorganic counter parts. One can bale to grow the above said materials by slow evaporation solution growth technique or low temperature melt growth technique. In this paper, we are reporting, some novel organic and semiorganic single crystal by slow evaporation solution growth technique. The commercially available raw materials are further purified by repeated recrystallization processes and then used for the single crystal growth. Benzimidazole, ninhydrin, 2-chloro 5 aminobenzophenone and l-lysine monohydrochloride were grown by adopting the above mentioned technique. Its lattice dimensions were determined by powder X-ray diffraction analysis and the functional groups were identified by FTIR method. Its crystalline perfection was assessed by NBPL developed high resolution X-ray diffraction and found that their crystalline perfection is reasonable Its second and third harmonic generation efficiency was determined by using Nd:YAG laser as a source. Its thermal and optical properties were examined by TG/DTA and UV-Vis., analyses. The observed results will be presented in detail.
Keywords
semiorganic nonlinear optical materials ,optic communication, optical signal processing, optical data storage
Author Name . Reddappa1 hn
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Paper Title Finite Element Wear behavior modeling of Al6061-10% wt. beryl composites
Abstract
In the present paper, Al6061-10% wt. beryl composites were prepared by liquid metallurgy route. They were characterized in terms of sliding wear behaviour by using pin-on-disc equipment for different loads and sliding distance. The experimental results were validated using mathematical model and numerical simulation by using finite element analysis. The exponential transient wear volume equation and Archard’s equation were used to predict the steady state wear rates.
Keywords
FEA, simulation, composite, wear depth
Author Name B.Sampath Kumar1 b
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Paper Title Experimental investigations of Tetragonal Zirconia polycrystal (TZP) in - Al2O3 matrix cutting to
Abstract
The paper presents a study for the development and to investigate the performance of ceramic cutting tool in phrase of machinibility, tool wear, surface roughness, vibration analysis of AISI 2100 hardened steel material using coated, ceramic grade tool and with the developed Tetetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal (TZP) in - Al2O3 ceramic cutting tool insert from laboratory. In this article experimental investigations were conceded under various combinations of cutting speed, feed and depth of cut with a fixed time period. During the turning experiments the machinability performance have been investigated with respect to wear chip reduction coefficient, surface finish with analysis, cutting force measurement, flank wear and vibrations are measured and presented in the article.
Keywords
Ceramic tool, Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystal, Flank wear, chip reduction co-efficient Zirconia Toughened Alumina, Machining.
Author Name .Vinod Kumar v
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Paper Title ERROR ANALYSIS OF FREE-FORM SURFACES USING REVERSE ENGINEERING TECHNIQUE
Abstract
Design and manufacturing of free-form surfaces have a wide range of applications such as automobile, aircraft, ship building, plastic manufacturing and biomedical engineering etc. In reverse engineering comparison of two free-form surfaces based on discrete data points is paramount importance. It can be used to assess the accuracy and to quantify the deviation between the two surfaces. This paper presents a methodology for 3-D free-form curve surface which is represented by bi-cubic parametric b-spline curve where The number of control points is increased in such a way that the slope and curvature at critical points and discontinuity of the curve has reduced. Because of this deviation is reduced and the smoothness of the curve is increased.
Keywords
Free-form surface, critical points, discontinuity, deviation
Author Name Mehdi Salari .
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Paper Title Effect of Primarily Annealing Temperature on the Texture Development and Magnetic Loss of Grain Or
Abstract
The magnetic properties and low core loss of grain oriented electrical steels are closely related to the sharpness of Goss texture. In this work, the dependence of orientation density along major texture fibers on the applied annealing temperatures from 820 to 1200 °C in the 80% cold rolled samples was investigated. Variation of the hysteresis losses revealed that hysteresis losses were high for the specimens treated at quite low temperatures. The annealing of the cold rolled specimens at the temperature of 1020 °C shows increase of the {110}<001>texture component intensity and drastically decrease in hysteresis losses. However, annealing of the grain-oriented specimen at a higher temperature (1200 °C) leads to a rise in the hysteresis losses.
Keywords
Electrical Steel -Grain Oriented –Texture Evolution- Goss - Annealing Temperature - hysteresis loss
Author Name . Kumar knb
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Paper Title Preparation of Biodegradable Material Having High Strength, Environmental Friendly Used for House Ho
Abstract
Polymers are extensively used in many engineering appli-cations. Filler reinforced polymer composite materials consist of fillers embedded in or bonded to a polymer ma-trix with distinct inter phases. The fillers can be in the form of particles, fibers, whiskers or flakes. Composite materials allow a great versatility of designs and offer many advantages over conventional materials such as they are stronger, lighter and have better stiffness to weight ratio. In present work, starch reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and silica reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) films having thickness 0.1 to 0.3 mm is developed using film casting technique. Starch reinforcement in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) enhances its biodegradability. The composites with 2 to 4 percent starch and 2-6 gm silica loading have been prepared. The mechanical, thermal and sorption properties of the developed system as a function of starch loading were investigated. For silica reinforced system also mechanical properties are investigated. It has been found that the mechanical properties of the developed composites increase with increase in starch and silica load-ing. The liquid uptake tendency has been observed to be decreased with increase in starch content in the system. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential scan-ning calorimetric (DSC) analysis have been carried out for evaluating the thermal degradation properties of the com-posites. The films are characterized by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. From TGA and DSC analysis it is found that decomposition temperatures, glass transition temperatures and flow temperatures increased upon Starch reinforcement, which indicates an increased useful range of the developed composites.The results have been compared with relevant theoretical models.
Keywords
polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), starch, silica, film casting, composites, TGA, DSC, sorption, mechanical properties.