Papers Posted on - Apr / 2016


Author Name K.Viswanath Allamraju
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc2016.04.01
Paper Title An Experimental Study On Fatigue And Durability Of Energy Harvester
Abstract
Fatigue failures of the designed products is merely bothering the modern engineers and scientists for the research communities of all fields. Especially in the field of Micro Electromechanical Systems(MEMS) durability of low power systems is very important under the climates of both at high temperature and low temperature zones. And also continuous electrical power requirement is also important for the MEMS and wireless sensor networks. Electricity is the greatest crisis in the world on one side and another side durability of smart devices such as mobile phones, laptops, compact devices, computer spare parts, unrecyclicable batteries etc for reducing the rate of pollution in the environment. By considering these problems authors are taken up a research in finding the fatigue characteristics are fatigue failure and durability of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)and then studied the scavenging device under harmonically excited vibrations . The optimum power output is observed about 0.0025 W. Under the resonance operated condition at the frequency of about 45 Hz , the durability of scavenging device is 9 years
Keywords
Lead Zirconate Titanate; Lead Ball; Impact mass; Scavenging Device; MEMS;
Author Name K.Viswanath Allamraju
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DOI • http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc2016.04.02
Paper Title Effect of Poisons Ratio on The Modal Analysis of Pzt Discs For Uniaxially Loaded Energy Harvesters
Abstract
This paper presents the effect of poisons ration on the modal analysis of PZT-4, PZT-5A, PZT-5H and PZT-8 discs at different poisons ratios such as 0.21, 0.31 and 0.41. Poisons ratio is 0.31 for all piezoelectric materials. Therefore first at 0.31 poisons ratio the natural frequencies at different modes of the above mentioned PZTs are studied. And also studied the effect of poisons ratio on the natural frequencies of PZT. The dimensions of PZT disc are 32 mm diameter and 2mm thickness. Simulation tool (Ansys 14.5) have been used for studying the modal analysis of the PZT discs by considering undamped condition. For PZT-5A, PZT-5H and PZT-8,the maximum deformation 26.776 µm is occurred at the mode 6 . For PZT-4, maximum deformation is 26.56 µm.
Keywords
Modal analysis; PZT;Poisons ratio; Natural frequencies
Author Name K.Panneerselvam
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc2016.04.03
Paper Title Mechanical and Tribological Behavior of Aluminum Honeycomb Core Reinforced with Polypropylene Composite
Abstract
Development of new Polymeric Matrix Composite are continuously increasing to meet out the industrial needs. In this paper new composite was developed by Aluminum Honeycomb Core structure was reinforced Polypropylene and it was characterized for mechanical and tribological properties. The characterization of mechanical properties like tensile strength, flexural strength, Impact strength and hardness of Aluminium honeycomb core reinforced with Polypropylene has been investigated over pure Polypropylene shows remarkable improvement in mechanical properties. Also in the Tribological characterization was done by using two-body abrasive wear test for the Aluminum Honeycomb Core structure reinforced Polypropylene composite. Abrasive wear experiments were conducted using a pin-on-disc wear tester under dry contact condition. Normal load, sliding velocity, sliding distance and abrasive paper grit size are considered as the design processes parameters and Coefficient Of Friction& Specific Wear Rate are considered as the responses. The design of experiments are based on L9 Orthogonal array used for this study. The optimum combination of process parameters for minimum Coefficient Of Friction are 30 N normal load, 1.046 m/sec sliding velocity, 450 m sliding distance and 320 grit size of abrasive paper and 30 N load, 1.569 m/sec sliding velocity, 450 m sliding distance and 400 grit size of abrasive gives minimum specific wear rate was obtained by using Analysis of Variance. Coefficient of friction is significantly influenced by the normal load, grit size. Specific wear rate is significantly influenced by sliding distance, normal load. Optical microscopy of worn surfaces revealed that wear mechanism is adhesive and abrasive, and there was a good bonding between Aluminium honeycomb core and Polypropylene
Keywords
Aluminum honeycomb core, Polypropylene, Taguchi analysis, Two-body abrasion
Author Name Ch. Joseph S Raju, C. Venkateshwar Reddy
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc2016.04.04
Paper Title Influence of Modified Epoxy Resin Systems on High Strength Carbon Roving Reinforced Composites
Abstract
Matrix modification is an effective way to improve the composite properties. In this paper, bi-functional epoxy resin was modified by the incorporation of reactive diluent, plasticizer and cycloaliphatic epoxy resin respectively and the effect of modified epoxy resin systems on high strength carbon roving reinforced composite properties Naval Ordnance Laboratory (NOL) ring tensile strength and Interlaminar Shear Strength (ILSS) were studied. Modified epoxy resin system with reactive diluent exhibited good toughness and low viscosity with better penetration and wettability to high strength carbon rovings leading to effective translation of fiber strength in the final composite. Compatibility of the modified epoxy resin with T-700 carbon fiber was ensured by Impregnated tow, NOL ring tensile and ILSS tests. Instrumental methods of analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (EDAX) were employed in analyzing the interfacial behavior. Failure modes indicated the role of matrix in effective load transfer in filament wound ring specimens. Reactive diluent modified epoxy resin system improved considerably the NOL ring tensile strength and ILSS properties.
Keywords
High strength carbon rovings, interface, impregnated tow,NOL ring tensile strength
Author Name Messaadi Mahassene
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc2016.04.05
Paper Title THE INTERCALATION OF Zn/Al HDL BY THE DIAMINO DODECYL PHOPHONIC ACID: SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM
Abstract
In this paper, Zn/Al double layered hydroxides (ZnAl LDH) were synthesized by chemical co-precipitation method and grafted with Diamino Dodecyl Phosphonic Acid (DDPA) by direct reaction and the obtained solids (ZnAl-DDPA LDH) were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, BET and elemental analysis. So, the present research was aimed to study the removal efficiency of Cd2+ by ZnAl-DDPA LDHand investigated all the parameters of adsorption such as the effect of concentration of Cd2+, effect of pH, adsorbent dose, the effect of salt and temperature. The sorption data were analyzed and fitted to linearized equations of the Langmuir and Freundlich. The kinetics of sorption was analyzed by use of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order kinetic models.
Keywords
Cadmiumremoval,adsorption,Zn-AlLDHs, Diamino Dodecyl Phosphonic Acid
Author Name T. K. Barman
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc2016.04.06
Paper Title Relating fractal dimension with roughness parameters in brass turning
Abstract
The present work describes the evaluation of the conventional roughness parameters and fractal dimensions of the surface profiles generated by turning of brass with different machining conditions such as depth of cut, work-piece speed and feed rate. The surface roughness parameters on the generated-turned surfaces were measured with a stylus-type profilometer and processed through the dedicated advanced surface finish analysis software Talyprofile for evaluation of the roughness parameters and fractal dimension. Parameters used in the present investigation are: Vertical parameters – Ra (CLA, m) and Rq (RMS, m), Transverse parameters – Rsm (mean line peak spacing, m), Peak shape and amplitude parameters – Rsk (skewness), Rku (kurtosis) and Fractal parameter – D (fractal dimension). The significant machining parameters for different roughness parameters and fractal dimension are found using ANOVA. The measured values of conventional roughness parameters and fractal dimension are correlated by non-linear regression analysis using fifth order polynomial model.
Keywords
ANOVA; Fractal dimension; Regression analysis; Roughness parameters; Turning
Author Name R.G.Deshpande
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc2016.04.07
Paper Title Machining C-45 Steel With Cryogenically Treated And Annealed Tungsten Carbide Cutting Tool Inserts
Abstract
Machining is a versatile technique of producing a wide variety of components from a wide range of materials with acceptable levels of dimensional accuracy and surface integrity. The advances in the field of Materials science and Technology have led to development of new materials with improved engineering properties even for commonly used materials. Even the strength and hardness of a variety of conventional engineering materials has increased many fold to keep pace with development of new materials. Sintered carbides are extensively used as cutting tool material, a material in machining a wide variety of work materials in present day machining industry with proven machining abilities compared to HSS tool and Cast alloy. But in machining of high strength temperature resistance alloys used in aerospace, marine and nuclear applications, they have failed miserably due to rapid wear. This has forced the machining Industry to bring in innovative changes in process design and application in terms of rigid machine tool and new cooling strategies. However, machining of these new classes of materials is still plagued by low productivity due to rapid wear. In the present work, uncoated Tungsten Carbide cutting tool inserts of geometry SNMG 120408-MR4 have been used. The inserts were cryogenically treated and were subjected to annealing in electric muffle furnace by pacing on refractory brick at temperatures 400oC, 600oC, 800oC. The samples showed appreciable improvement in hardness and microstructure study revealed that carbide phase distribution was fairly uniform with binder phase segregating slightly in few cases. Under all cutting velocities, Cryo-treated and annealed inserts showed the highest tool life and wear resistance. Annealing has significant influence on the phases present in WC+Co inserts and subsequently influences their machining performance
Keywords
Machining, Cryogenic Treatment, Tungsten Carbide, Annealing
Author Name P.C.Padhi
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc2016.04.08
Paper Title Optimization of Process Parameters in WEDM of EN-31 Alloy Steel using Taguchi Technique and TOPSIS
Abstract
Optimization of parameters in any process is vital to survive in the present competitive era as it helps to meet out the quality, functional and economical requirement of the product in the best possible way. In this work, TOPSIS (Techniques for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) method is combined with Taguchi’s technique to solve a multi objective optimization problem in Wire-electrical discharge machining (WEDM) of EN-31 alloy steel. Process information was gathered by Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array to study the effect of six input parameters on four responses. TOPSIS has been used to convert multiple responses to a response called as Multi-Performance Characteristic Index (MPCI). This MPCI was then optimized by Taguchi method. ANOVA revealed that pulse off time (41.38%) was the most significant parameter followed by the servo feed (26.80%) and pulse-on-time (15.10%) whereas the effect of wire feed, wire tension and spark gap set voltage is negligible. Further, the confirmation experiment with optimal parameters confirmed that the targeted multi-performance characteristic was significantly improved to achieve more desirable levels.
Keywords
WEDM, EN-31, TOPSIS, Taguchi Technique, MRR, Dimensional Deviation.
Author Name Gurmail Singh
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ ijammc.2016.04.09
Paper Title PERFORMANCE of Cr3C2-25NiCr AND Ni-20Cr COATINGS IN Na2SO4–60% V2O5ENVIRONMENT AT 900°C UNDER CYCLIC CONDITIONS
Abstract
In present study, two Cr3C2-25NiCr and Ni-20Cr coatings were deposited on ASTM SA-213 T-11boiler tube steel by Detonation Gun thermal spray process is being discussed, under severe corrosive environmental conditions viz. High temperature corrosion studies were conducted to investigate the performance of the coatings. The tests were conducted for the coated and uncoated T-11 boiler steel in a simulated boiler environment (Na2SO4-60%V2O5) at 900°C for 50 cycles. Each cycle consisted 1 hour of heating in the silicon carbide tube furnace followed by 20 min of cooling in air. The weight change measurements were recorded after each cycle to establish the kinetics of high temperature corrosion. The corroded samples were characterized by SEM/EDS and XRD analysis. The results reveal that formations of chromium rich protective oxides contributed for the better hot corrosion resistance in coated steel. Subsequently, Cr3C2-25%NiCr provides advantageous result than Ni-20Cr coating.
Keywords
High Temperature Corrosion; D-Gun; Cr3C2-25NiCr; Boiler Steel
Author Name Vinkel Kumar Arora
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2016.04.10
Paper Title Effect of Geometry, Material and Strength Reduction Factor on the Fatigue Life of the Symmetrical Leaf Spring
Abstract
The fatigue life and stiffness of the leaf spring are the benchmark of the performance in the spring industry. Thefatigue life of a leaf spring depends upon the various factors like geometry, material, strength reduction and someuncontrollable factors. To determine the effect of variation of individual factor on the fatigue life is always achallenging task as the experimental procedure is time consuming and costly. The work presented in this paperdepicts the effect of variation of an individual factor ratio on the fatigue life of a leaf spring. A computer programhas been written in FORTRAN, for determination of the fatigue life of a LCV leaf spring, has been validatedexperimentally. The geometry factor width to span (b/L )ratio ,material factor ultimate tensile strength to Young’sModulus (Sut/E)ratio and overall strength reduction factor (Kf) have been considered in this work. The effect ofvariation of each factor on the fatigue life of the leaf spring has been determined using statistical tool NCSS. Theregression model has been depicted and validated analytically and experimentally.
Keywords
Leaf spring; Fatigue life; Geometry factor; Strength reduction factor; Material factor.
Author Name Sakshi Tyagi
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ ijammc.2016.04.11
Paper Title Evaluation of mechanical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube/HDPE-P5300 composites using molecular dynamics
Abstract
High Density Polyethylene-P5300 (HDPE) possesses superior mechanical properties. However, these properties may be further increased by introducing single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as reinforcement filler. The study conducted here is based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed on SWCNTs/ HDPE composites. Modeling and simulations are performed on three different samples of SWCNTs/ HDPE composites with SWCNT variation from 0.0 to 2.0 wt.%. This study investigates the effect of SWCNT wt. % on the young’s modulus, bulk and shear modulus of SWCNTs /HDPE composites. A maximum value of 1.64 GPa of Young’s modulus with 2.0 wt.% SWCNT/HDPE composite has been obtained, as compare to pure HDPE composite. Considerable increment of 10.5% and 12.4% with respect to pristine has also been observed for 2.0 wt.% sample in shear and bulk modulus respectively. Overall, the agreement between predicted values of the material properties and experimental data obtained from the industrial research is found satisfactory. This study will assist in the modeling, simulation and design of advanced nanotube reinforced HDPE composites for potential real life applications, particularly in high pressure pipes applications.
Keywords
High Density Polyethylene; Single Wall Carbon Nanotube; Molecular Dynamics; Mechanical properties
Author Name A. G. Matani
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2016.04.12
Paper Title Improving Green Supply Chain Management Productivity Towards Ecologically Sustainable Business Practices in Indian Manufacturing
Abstract
According to a report published by FICCI, food processing industry in India is one of the world’s largest producers as well as consumer of food products, with the sector playing an important role in contributing to the development of the economy. Food and food products are the largest consumption category in India, with a market size of USD 181billion. Domestically, the spending on food and food products amounts to nearly 21% of the gross domestic product of the country and constitutes the largest portion of the Indian consumer spending more than a 31% share of wallet. The Indian domestic food market is expected to grow by nearly 40% of the current market size by 2015, to touch USD 258 billion by 2016.However, despite of continual efforts and initiatives of the Government to provide the required stimulus to the sector, processing activity is still at a nascent stage in India with low penetration. At the same time, though India is a key producer of food products, having an adequate production base for inputs, productivity levels are very low in the country. While India remains a top producer of food, production yield levels are among the lowest amongst the BRIC countries. Also, the Indian export market, at USD13.7 billion, has a share of only 1.4% of the world food trade. This paper highlights the significance of green supply chain management practices towards ecologically sustainable business practices
Keywords
Packaging engineering and redesign, logistics optimization, sustainable supply chains, modern information and telecommunications technology tools
Author Name A. G. Matani
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ ijammc.2016.04.13
Paper Title Industrial Waste Utilization As Resources Inventory Towards Green Manufacturing
Abstract
Large scale industries are not the only generators of industrial waste. Small-scale industry, small workshops, garages, and very small production units collectively produce large quantities of industrial wastes. An estimated 60 percent of all hazardous industrial waste in the United States is disposed of with a method called deep well injection. This paper highlights the various sources of industrial wastes and its consequences on environment degradation. This paper also highlights latest developments in utilization of waste management software in different parts of the world
Keywords
Hazardous waste, potential hazards, toxicity, gasifier, renewable biogas
Author Name Srishti Mishra
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2016.04.14
Paper Title Optimization of Process Parameter of TIG Welding of Stainless Steel Plate Using Taguchi method
Abstract
This work deals with the effects of various process parameters such as peak welding current ,gas flow rate, root face and welding time on metal deposition rate (MDR) of stainless steel plate of SS304 grade by TIG welding. In order to obtain, high welding strength, process parameter optimization plays an important role in welding process by identifying optimum process parameters.The effect of process parameters of TIG welding like weld current, gas flow rate, work piece thickness on the bead geometry of SS304.It is found that the process parameters considered affected the mechanical properties with great extent. Taguchi methodology is used to analyse the effect of each welding process parameters and optimal process parameters which obtained in order to get maximum deposition rate of TIG welded AISI 304 stainless steel Mainly Four input parameter- current, gas flow rate, face and welding time are select to analyse their effect on the metal deposition rate by changing or varying them.L9 Orthogonal Array technique is used to formulate the experiment layout and various processes. Conclude that the optimal input parameter setting for current, gas flow rate, root face and welding time are 90 amp, 2.0 litre/min, 2mm and 95 second.
Keywords
Type your keywords here, separated by semicolons ;
Author Name Rakshith T
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2016.04.15
Paper Title Optimization Of Parameters For Elbow Component Using Manufacturing Simulation
Abstract
Pre forming state of a segment assumes a vital part in mass shaping procedure. Pre forming operation in manufacturing of billet and planning of die assumes an extensive part in forging procedure. The parameters that are considered in designing and analysis of forging dies are under fill, cracks flash allowance and uniform stress and strain. In the present examination it was found that the impact of these parameters would influence on the nature of forgings. To take advantages of models and materials method, and to bring down the expenses, computer simulation has been utilized, however, it copies the real process and gives a watched worth for producing load, flash allowance, unfilled zones and die cavity filling. Through computer simulation it is conceivable to get powerful stress and strain distribution in axis symmetric die forging. In the present work compelling plan of lower and upper die on for a automotive module, elbow and its proportionate billet outline has been made by utilizing UNIGRAPHICS NX 8 CAD tool. These models are imported to general purpose metal forming simulator software AFDEX-2014. Simulation of closed die forging has been carried out by conveying all the vital parameters like temperature, materials, lubricants, density and so on. Several iterations have been done by changing the dimensions of initial billet to reduce unfilled area, flash, even distribution of stress and strain and also optimization of billet size has been achieved
Keywords
Closed die forging; Elbow; AFDEX; Flash; Uniform stress distribution
Author Name Jaimon D. Quadros
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc2016.04.16
Paper Title Investigation of Thrust Force and Torque Induced Failure on Stacking Sequence of Glass Fibers in GFRP Composite Laminates during Drilling Process
Abstract
The present research work aims at investigating the magnitude of drilling forces produced during the drilling process of [0/0/0] or uni-directional and [0/90/0] or bi-directional glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates. The composite laminates were prepared by hand lay-up technique. The drilling process is carried out by using 3 drill bits of different drill point geometries viz. 4-facet, 8-facet and jo-drill. The corresponding ultimate failure stress for the manufactured composite laminates has been determined by using Tsai-wu failure criteria. The study reveals that, the finest orientation for glass fibers i.e. bi-directional can be implemented for manufacturing of the glass fiber reinforced epoxy GFRP composite laminates due to minimum damage affecting failure. Finally, the scanning electron microscopic observation on the drilled specimens are examined and discussed accordingly.
Keywords
Drilling, hand lay-up, Tsai-wu , glass fibers.
Author Name Saurabh Agrawal
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DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.11127/ijammc.2016.04.17
Paper Title Optimization of Machining Parameters for Turning of Hard Porcelain using Application of Grey Relational Analysis
Abstract
This paper presents the effect of machining parameters on material Hardness and Voltage during turning of hard porcelain material on CNC turning machine (SINUMERIK802D) at different level. In this work, all the machining parameters namely, cutting speed, feed rate, angle of cut and depth of cut were designed using Mixed Taguchi L18 method. The impact of all the input parameters on the response parameters (material Hardness and Voltage) was optimized using grey relational analysis (GRA). The result of developed mathematical model was examined by ANOVA. Experimental results indicate that the depth of cut (DOC) and cutting speed (CS) were the leading parameters that affect the Hardness and Voltage of material, which can be diminished when the depth of cut and cutting speed were kept at the lower level, while angle of cut and feed rate were kept at the highest level. The effect of angle of cut and feed rate were found to be insignificant as compared to the other factors. Finally, the confirmation test was carried out to measure the effectiveness of applied methodology.
Keywords
Hard Turning (SINUMERIK802D), Machining parameters,